List of Revolutionary War Battles for 1776

List of Revolutionary War Battles, Raids & Skirmishes for 1776

January of 1776

January 1-2, 1776 at Norfolk, Virginia

On December 14, Col. Robert Howe and his North Carolina Regiment entered Norfolk and took overall command of the American forces in the town. Lord Dunmore and his Tory recruits had taken refuge aboard several British ships in the harbor. He demanded provisions from the town for himself and his troops.

After hearing this demand, the townspeople refused to send him some provisions and to allow him to send a foraging party ashore. The militia had even started to take potshots at the British ships. Dunmore asked Howe to stop the militia from firing on the ships and Howe declined.

On December 31, during the morning, Dunmore announced that he would open fire and bombard Norfolk because of the lack of cooperation.

On January 1, at 4:00 A.M., Dunmore ordered the bombardment of the town to begin. While he was blasting away at the town, Dunmore sent several landing parties ashore. They burned down the houses and warehouses along the waterfront. When the townspeople learned of this, they retaliated by setting fire to the homes of prominent local Tories. A wind spread the fire throughout the town. By this time, most of the locals had fled to Suffolk. The fire lasted for about 50 hours before it died out. When the locals returned, they tore down all of the houses that were not burned down to prevent the Tories and British from using them.

Eventually, Dunmore and his Tories came ashore and built some barracks for the troops. Howe and his troops kept Dunmore from obtaining any provisions from the countryside. Howe's troops were located at nearby Suffolk, Kemp's Landing, and Great Bridge, and continually fired upon the Tories anytime they went to gather supplies. Dunmore soon returned to the ships and left for Gwynn Island, where he established a new base for his Tories.

The Americans suffered 3 killed & 7 wounded.

Conclusion: British Victory

January 5, 1776 at Haddrell's Point, South Carolina

On January 5, the HMS Tamar and HMS Cherokee detained a fishing sloop that was leaving Sullivan's Island. In response to this, the 1st South Carolina Regiment, located on the island, sent out an auger full of armed troops to reclaim the fishing boat.

The British ships fired on them, forcing the Patriots back to shore. While this was going on, the 4th South Carolina Artillery were manning the fort at Haddrell's Point. They fired on the British ships, stopping them from chasing the Patriot ship. Neither side had much effect.
On January 6, the British ships left the harbor.

Conclusion: Inconclusive Victory

January 8, 1776 at Charlestown, Massachusetts

On January 8, a performance of British Gen. John Burgoyne's farce "The Blockade of Boston" was ironically interrupted by the announcement that some American troops were conducting a raid. The audience mistakenly thought the announcement, made by an actor dressed in the uniform of a Continental Army sargeant, marked the opening of the play.

The raid, led by Maj. Thomas Knowlton, succeeded in capturing 5 British prisoners and burning 8 houses. Knowlton's force did not suffer any casualties.

Conclusion: American Victory

January 12-14, 1776 at Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

The HMS Glasgow and HMS Sloop Swan landed a raiding force of approximately 250 Soldiers and Royal Marines at Prudence Island on January 12. The British drove off a company of 50 men under the command of Ensign James Miller of the third Company of Richmond's Regiment.

The British after driving off Miller's command, began confiscating supplies, carrying away the remaining live stock, and burning numerous homes and barns. The raiders continued their pillage and plunder into the morning of the 13th until they were challenged by Captain William Barton initially leading a contingent of 60 men from Richmond's Regiment who began skirmishing near the Farnham's Farm. Many other Rhode Island companies crossed the bay to join in the engagement.

The contest raged for three hours as American reinforcements continued to arrive and bolster their numbers. The British were eventually compelled to retire to their ships under an increasingly incessant fire. They suffered the loss of 14 dead and suffered many wounded.
Conclusion: British Victory

January 12, 1776 at Sullivan's Island, South Carolina

On January 12, Capt. Smith, commander of the pilot boat Hibernia, was ordered to conduct a reconnaissance of some approaching British ships.

At 7:00 A.M., the British fleet (frigate HMS Syren, sloop HMS Raven, and HMS Rittenhouse) approached the Charlestown Harbor. Capt. Tobias Furneaux, commander of the Syren, sent a small boat into the harbor to see if the HMS Tamar was still there.

Not seeing the ship, the small boat headed back to the fleet when it was attacked by the Hibernia. The British boat chased the Hibernia into Sullivan's Island. There, it was fired upon by the 2nd South Carolina Regiment. The British boat was chased away.

Conclusion: Inconclusive Victory

January 17, 1776 at Johnstown, New York

On January 17, Sir John Johnson, a noted Loyalist and son of deceased former Superintendent of Indian Affairs Sir William Johnson, was forced to make terms with Maj. Gen. Philip Schuyler. Johnson had accumulated munitions at his estate, Johnson Hall, and had mustered 200 Loyalist Highlanders and a force of Mohawk Indians there, lending credence to reports that he represented a danger to the patriots in the area.

Dispatching a force of 3,000 militia to the environs of Johnson Hall, Schuyler obliged Johnson to disarm his followers, surrender the armaments, and submit to imprisonment leading to parole under the orders of Congress. Tory resistance in the Albany area was effectively terminated.

Conclusion: American Victory

January 23, 1776 at Sandy Hook, New Jersey

On January 23, a Patriot force from Elizabethtown, commanded by William Alexander and Elias Dayton, managed to capture the Brtish ship, HMS Blue Mountain Valley, about 40 miles off the banks of Sandy Hook.
Conclusion: American Victory

January 27-28, 1776 at Fort Johnson, North Carolina

On January 26, the sloop HMS Scorpion was ordered to attack the Patriots in Fort Johnson. The Scorpion managed to fire 26 rounds before retiring. The sloop HMS Cruizer tried to get close to the fort but was unsuccessful.

On January 27, the Cruizer was ordered to sail up the Cape Fear River, but turned back when they saw the impressive defensive breastworks of the city. The Cruizer tried to land a raiding party but was forced to abandon it after receiving rifle fire from both sides of the river. The ship was continually fired upon until it left the river area.

Conclusion: American Victory

February of 1776

February 5, 1776 at North carolina coast, North Carolina (HMS Syren vs. Hawke)

On February 5, the pilot ship Hawke was captured by the HMS Syren.
Conclusion: British Victory

February 10, 1776 at Cape Fear River, North Carolina (HMS Cruzer vs. USS America)

On February 10, the HMS Cruizer, commanded by Capt. Francis Perry, captured the USS America as it was sailing up the Cape Fear River.

Conclusion: British Victory

February 14, 1776 at Dorchester, Massachusetts

Conclusion: American Victory

March of 1776

March 1, 1776 at Cockspur Island, Georgia

On March 1, a British force, commanded by Maj. John Maitland, landed on Cockspur Island. Once there, they met and skirmished with the local Patriot militia. The militia was eventually forced to withdraw.

Conclusion: British Victory. Casualties: Americans: 1w; British: 4w

March 2-3, 1776 at Yamacraw Bluff, South Carolina

The Battle of the Rice Boats took place in the Savannah River on the border between the Province of Georgia and the Province of South Carolina. The battle pitted the American militia against the proud British Navy. It is sometimes referred to as the battle of Yamacraw Bluff.

In the early days of the war, Georgia had managed to remain relatively neutral in the conflict. In early 1776, Georgia's Royal Governor James Wright ordered the provisioning of several British warships anchored in the Savannah River. The militia-sympathizing assembly refused to allow this and drove Wright out of the capital. Wright, along with several dozen loyalists, took shelter on the warships.

Further north, a group of merchant ships carrying rice was attacked by British warships on the 2nd, and their cargoes of rice were seized. The Georgians reacted quickly. About 600 Georgian militia joined by about 500 Whig from South Carolina set the ship Inverness ablaze and cut it loose. The fire ship, a weapon consisting of a ship carrying explosives that is set adrift to destroy enemy ships, drifted into the British brig, HMS Nelly. These 2 ships drifted downstream, setting 3 more ships on fire.

The British squadron was forced to retire.

Conclusion: American Victory

March 2-4, 1776 at Dorchester Heights, Massachusetts

Gen. George Washington had sneaked 59 cannon and positioned his troops on top of Dorchester Heights, overlooking Boston. This gave the colonists the advantage of targeting the British, who were stationed in the city and harbor, below. Washington had hoped Gen. William Howe and his troops would either flee or try to take the hill. Howe chose to flee. The British evacuated Boston, and headed to Halifax, Nova Scotia.

On March 2, the American artillery carried out a heavy nighttime bombardment from Lechmere Point, Cobble Hill, and Roxbury. This was used to distract the attention of the British forces in Boston so that they would not anticipate the occupation of Dorchester Heights.

On March 4, under cover of a third night of artillery bombardments, Brig. Gen. John Thomas secretly occupied Dorchester Heights with a force of 2,000 men and dug in. The materials for building entrenchments was brought up by 360 oxcarts. The troops were concealed during their placement by fog and by bales scattered along Dorchester Neck. The grand object of of the Americans of drawing off the attention of the British from Dorchester Heights until they could take possession of that position was accomplished.

Under bright moonlight, the men worked throughout the night- supplemented by a relief party at 3:00 A.M.- digging trenches, strengthening breastworks, erecting barricades at these two sites. Five companies of riflemen and companies of other troops marched over to man these defensive positions. By daybreak, the fortification and occupation was complete.

Conclusion: American Victory

March 2-4, 1776 at Hutchinson's Island, Georgia

On March 2-4, Maj. James Grant landed at Hutchinson's Island with 300 British troops. Their mission was to attempt to retake some captured British merchant ships. At 4:00 A.M., they were able to board the ships and captured the American crew. Some of the crew escaped and managed to warn Col. Lachlan McIntosh, local commander of the Georgia troops, that the British had retaken the ships.

The British fleet were signaled to come and tow the mercant ships out to sea. The fleet comprised of the schooner HMS Hinchenbrook, and transports HMS Whitby and HMS East Florida Symmetry. The Hinchenbrook was fired upon by 2 companies of riflemen. The ship fired back was forced to withdraw to Cockspur Island. The 2 transports were able to get to the merchant ships and began unloading the cargo of rice.

Two Patriot officers were allowed onboard the merchant ships and demanded the British to surrender. They were soon taken as prisoners. McIntosh opened fire with cannon until the British agreed to negotiations. The Patriots fired on the British ships for 4 hours, injuring several British troops. McIntosh was ordered to set fire to the merchant ships. The Inverness was set on fire and cut loose to sail down to the rice boats.

When the British saw the burning ship heading their way, they abandoned the ships and swam to shore while being fired upon. Of the total number of merchant ships, 4 were caught on fire and destroyed. The British troops on the transport ships panicked and jumped overboard. They swam to the other British on shore. The remaining 12 rice boats were able to sail out to sea. They were soon recaptured by the British and the rice was confiscated.

Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: Americans: 2k, 3w; British: 6 k&w

March 3-4, 1776 at Nassau, Bahamas

The American navy's first planned operation resulted in the capture of New Providence and substantial supplies of munitions as plunder. Esek Hopkins' fleet of 8 ships sailed into the port town of Nassau Island.

Some 200 marines of the newly formed Marine Corps, under Samuel Nicholas, comprised the major part of the landing party that occupied the town and its 2 forts. Fort Nassau was the principal fort on the island.

This battle was the Mrine Corps' first taste of combat, although they did not encounter any resistance. They confiscated 71 cannon and 24 casks of powder.

Conclusion: American Victory

March 7, 1776 at Savannah, Georgia

Earlier in the year, Gov. Sir James Wright gave up hope of keeping the revolution out of Georgia. He appealed to Gen. Thomas Gage and Adm. Graves for armed British support.

When two British warships and a loaded transport ship arrived in response to Wright's request, the council of safety arrested Wright and other official to prevent their rallying Georgia Loyalists.

On January 18, a group of patriots captured Wright and placed him under house arrest.

On February 11, he escaped that night and took refuge aboard the HMS Scarsborough.

On March 6, the British warships traveled upriver and captured 11 merchant vessels filled with rice. The transport ship unloaded the British troops, commanded by Maj. John Maitland and Maj. James Grant, at Hutchinson's Island. The Americans sent a warning to the British to withdraw from the island, which the British ignored.

On March 7, the Americans set fire to 2 merchant ships and sent them drifting towards the British transport ship. When the British saw the 2 ships heading toward their transport ship, they panicked. Around this same time, Col. Bull arrived in the area with 400 Carolinians.

With all of this going on, they decided to abandoned their plans for attacking the town. The town was opposite the island. The British withdrew from the area, leaving only 2 of the merchant ships intact.
Conclusion: American Victory

March 8, 1776 at Boston, Massachusetts

British and American artillery engage in a lengthy dual at Nook's Hill, Boston. The artillery barrage drives off the unsheltered Continental infantry with 5 killed.
Conclusion: British Victory

March 9, 1776 at Chariton Creek, Virginia

On March 9, the USS Defence, and Maryland militiamen attacked and drove off the HMS Otter. The Otter was one of the ships in Lord Dunmore's "navy" in Chesapeake Bay.
Conclusion: American Victory

March 10-12, 1776 at Fort Johnson, North Carolina

On March 10, Capt. Francis Parry, commander of the HMS Cruizer, sent a 12-man party to destroy Fort Johnson. The local Patriot militia onshore spotted the party and drove them away with gunfire.

On March 12, British reinforcements arrived with the arrival of Adm. Henry Clinton's fleet, which came from the Cape Fear River area. After learning of the British defeat at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge, he decided not to land any troops on the mainland because it would be too dangerous.
Conclusion: American Victory

March 11, 1776 at Hutchinson's Island, Georgia

On March 11, Col. Stephen Bull learned of the British attack on Savannah. He was ordered to embark from Purysburgh with a relief force of 400 South Carolina miliamen. They left and moved down the Savannah River, landing on Hutchinson's Island. Upon their arrival, they spotted and fired on some British troops. The British quickly scattered across the island, leaving two artillery pieces behind.

The sloop HMS Cherokee and a transport ship sailed up the river to the island. Once they arrived, they assisted some of the British ships that were in the area to safely withdraw. Those ships threw about 2,000 lbs. of rice overboard and sailed out of range of Bull's floating artillery.
Conclusion: American Victory

March 12, 1776 at Savannah, Georgia (HMS Raven vs. Georgia Packet)

The British naval fleet that had left Charlestown in January had made the mouth of the Savannah River its base of operations. They had orders to capture any American ships that appeared near their fleet.

On March 12, the Georgia Packet, loaded with food and drink supplies neared the area. The HMS Raven spotted and quickly captured the ship off the Savannah Bar.
Conclusion: British Victory

March 14, 1776 at Sandy Point, South Carolina

On March 14, a couple of South Carolina tenders were sailing up river at Sandy Point when they encountered a small Loyalist ship coming down the river with a cargo of flour. The Loyalists quickly ran their ship aground and fled. The tenders stayed with the ship, trying to work it loose. The Tories regrouped and opened fire on the tenders. They fired back at the Tories.
When the tide came in, the tenders were able to work free the Loyalist ship and carried it downstream to Charlestown.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: Americans: 1w; British: 3k

March 15, 1776 at Charlestown, South Carolina

On March 15, at sunrise, the frigate HMS Syren spotted an American ship that was carrying a Pennsylvania Artillery Company. The Syren chased the ship and soon fired a shot across its bow. The American ship stopped and surrendered without a fight.
Conclusion: British Victory

March 20, 1776 at Cross Creek, North Carolina

Unaware of what had transpired at Moore's Creek Bridge, Capt. Thomas Reid gathered over one hundred Loyalist militiamen and marched to join Brigadier General Donald McDonald's army at Cross Creek. When he and his men approached the town they received word about the Loyalist's defeat almost a month earlier.

Capt. Reid along with Capt. Walter Cunningham resolved to go on with fourteen men and offer any assistance they could. When they entered Cross Creek they were informed that Patriots now occupied Cochrane's Mill, with a superior force. These Patriots - the Tryon County Regiment of Militia under the command of Col. William Graham - were returning home from the battle at Moore's Creek Bridge and had taken up lodging at the mill. They were exhausted and incorrectly thought that there were no active Loyalists left in the area, so they posted no guards.

In a bold move, Capt. Thomas Reid marched up to the door of the mill and demanded their surrender, making the Patriots think that he had a larger force. The Patriots surrendered without resistance. After disarming them, Capt. Reid immediately let them go and then he continued on towards the coast, where he and his men boarded a sloop of war.
Conclusion: British Victory

March 25, 1776 at Tybee Island, Georgia

On March 25, a raiding party of Creek Indians and Georgia militia, painted like Indians, attacked 12 British Marines on Tybee Island. The militia was commanded by Capt. Archibald Bullock. The British had been sent to Tybee Island with 12 slaves to cut wood and collect water. They were not armed.

The American raiders struck the British quickly. There were a few british ships nearby. When they learned of the attack, they fired 3 broadside shots at the raiders and then sent a landing party to assist the Marines. The militia opened fire on the landing party, forcing them to move out of range. Once they finally landed, the British party burned 2 houses on the island. Shortly after all of this, all but two of the ships left the Savannah River.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: British: 1k, 2w, 13c

March 22, 1776 at Charlestown, South Carolina (USS Comet vs. HMS General Clinton)

On March 22, the USS Comet captured the sloop HMS General Clinton. This was the first time that the South Carolina Navy defeated a British warship.
Conclusion: American Victory


April 6, 1776 at Block Island, Rhode Island

Capt. Esek Hopkins' naval fleet experienced a final encounter when the HMS Glasgow sailed into their midst after midnight on April 6. The ensuing pitched battle lasted for 3 hours, with British Capt. Tryingham Howe displaying superior seamanship in a series of bold moves.

Though greatly outnumbered, the Glasgow inflicted 24 American casualties while only suffering 4 of her own, and its guns knocked out the USS Alfred's wheel block and raked that ship's deck with shot.

During the battle, Howe threw overboard dispatches he was carrying from Gen. William Howe in Halifax, Nova Scotia, to Gen. Henry Clinton. Although badly damaged, the Glasgow escaped.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: Americans: 24k&w; British: 4k&w

April 6, 1776 at Brunswick Town, North Carolina

After the victory of Moore's Creek Bridge, Congress appointed James Moore as a brigadier general in command of all the forces in North Carolina on April 10.

On April 6, upon learning of the British fleet arriving at Cape Fear on March 12, Col. James Moore marched 120 men of the 2nd NC Regiment and 449 men of the 1st NC Regiment to Wilmington. Adding in the local militia, Col. Moore had 1,847 men assembled to face 700 British Regulars on board the military transports anchored offshore. He had his men to erect two artillery batteries armed with 6-pounders and 9-pounders, then had his men to sink hulks in the Cape Fear River to block the channel below Wilmington.

General Sir Henry Clinton was able to land foraging parties along the shore and in one skirmish the British captured one Patriot officer with five men near Brunswick Town. The Royal Navy cruised the general area and fired salvos at anyone who exposed themselves on the shore. They also picked up a few survivors and refugees of the battle of Moore's Creek Bridge.

General Clinton issued a proclamation urging the citizens to return to the King. He promised to pardon all those who would come in and reaffirm their allegiance - except for Robert Howe and Cornelius Harnett, two ardent Patriots from Brunswick County and New Hanover County. Howe and Harnett were named as outlaws by the British ministry since they organized the first militia used against the King.
Conclusion: British Victory

April 14, 1776 at Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina

Capt. John Goodrich, Sr. was a ship owner and a merchant in Virginia. He was sent by the Virginia Committee of Safety to procure gunpowder from the West Indies. John sent his son, William, on this mission. William Goodrich transported 1,400 pounds of gunpowder under extraordinary circumstances, and this news came to the attention of Virginia Royal Governor John Murray, Lord Dunmore.

Governor Lord Dunmore had William Goodrich strapped in irons and confiscated his ship - then, Governor Lord Dunmore had his father John Goodrich, Sr. and his brother John Goodrich, Jr. report to his ship on the 10th of every month. After a period of time, Governor Lord Dunmore convinced the Goodriches that they should return to the side of the Crown.

On April 14, the merchant schooner Polly was sailing through the Outer Banks off North Carolina. James Buchanan, a Mr. Henry, and Archibald Campbell of Edenton owned the Polly, and she was captained by Silas Henry. As the Polly proceeded to the Swash, near Ocracoke, she was hailed by Capt. John Goodrich, Jr. on the armed sloop Lilly. With the Lilly was a tender fitted by Governor Lord Dunmore for the purpose of taking vessels at the Ocracoke Bar.

Goodrich ordered Capt. Silas Henry to get into the tender with his papers. Mr. Henry and James Buchanan, also on board the Polly, were both ordered into the tender as well. Goodrich claimed the Polly was his prize along with her cargo of Indian corn and staves.

That night, Lt. John Wright, commander of the Royal Navy armed sloop HMS Fincastle, came over the Ocracoke bar in a boat of armed men. Wright boarded the Polly, disarmed the men, plundered the livestock, and left a Prize Master and four armed men aboard. That same night, Wright and his men captured two other vessels and carried them out to sea.

Twenty-three Ocracoke pilots commanded by "a brave young man, Benjamin Bonner of Pamplico River," recaptured the Polly on April 17 by boarding the tender with five whaleboats full of armed men. When the pilots captured the Lilly, they also captured Goodrich, seven of his "Negro crew," Capt. George Blair of the Ethiopian Regiment, a soldier of the 14th Regiment. Goodrich was a prisoner at Charlottesville for at least 18 months. The recaptured vessels were sent to New Bern and used as tenders for the North Carolina Navy brigantines, King Tammany and Pennsylvania Farmer.

A few days later, two armed independent companies were raised for the purpose of protecting the shipping around Ocracoke. One independent company was commanded by Capt. James Anderson and was posted at Ocracoke Island, the other company was commanded by Capt. Enoch Ward and was posted at Core Sound.
Conclusion: British Victory

April 17, 1776 off the Virginia Coast, Virginia (USS Lexington vs. HMS Edward)

On April 17, Capt. John Barry, in command of the USS Lexington, battled with the British sloop HMS Edward. Although Barry's ship had more guns than the Edward, the British had more experience. The Lexington endured heavy battering and 4 casualties but inflicted severe damage to the Edward's sails and rigging.

The Edward finally struck her colors, and Barry thus became the first American naval captain to capture a British ship in actual combat. A wealthy Philadelphia shipownwer, Barry had been master of the USS Alfred, now under Capt. Esek Hopkins's command, before the Revolutionary War.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: Americans: 4k&w

April 21-22, 1776 near Charleston harbor, South Carolina (HMS Falcon and HMS General Clinton vs. USS Comet and St. James)

The day after Capt. Joseph Turpin captured English prize, the St. James, loading with rum and sugar, he was spotted by the British sloop HMS Falcon, along with her tender, HMS General Clinton (formerly the rebel brig Hetty). Capt. Turpin tried to bring his prizes into Charlestown, but the HMS Falcon pursued him. As he reached Charlestown, his prize ship ran aground three miles northeast of Fort Johnson, and Capt. Turpin was forced to abandon it after setting it on fire.

Capt. John Linzee of the HMS Falcon sent Capt. William Stacey and the HMS General Clinton to try to put out the fire, but Capt. Turpin fired on the General Clinton. The guns of the Comet did not cause any damage due to the distance, but the St. James and her cargo was a total loss.

On April 22, Capt. Turpin and his Comet quickly overtook HMS General Clinton, and for the first time the SC Navy defeated a British warship. The Comet captured the General Clinton, along with several pilots who had been helping the British, and now the British had none to assist them in their navigation of the Charlestown Harbor.

This first small victory for the SC Navy would have a significant impact on the near future of Charlestown.
Conclusion: American Victory

MAY OF 1776

May 1-3, 1776 at Fort Johnson, North Carolina

On May 1, Maj. Gen. Henry Clinton destroyed Fort Johnson because of American riflemen had used the fort to fire on the nearby British naval fleet for days. The fleet moved to within 200 yards from the shore, and were still being fired on from the militia.

On May 2, Clinton landed 10 companies near Fort Johnson to try to eliminate the snipers. After landing, the snipers were nowhere to be found. The British searched 4 miles inland and still found nothing.

On May 3, in the morning, the American snipers returned to their positions. They fired on the Cruizer, and the Cruizer fired back. This silenced the snipers. This cleared the area of the militia at Fort Johnson.
Conclusion: British Victory

May 6, 1776 at Plains of Abraham, Quebec

On May 6, the British fleet arrived in Quebec. Gen. Guy Carleton, having received a report that the American army was preparing to retreat from the Plains of Abraham, formed a reconnaissance mission. With 4 guns and 900 men, including the first 200 men to disembark from the ships, he approached the American encampment.

Gen. John Thomas could only muster 250 troops to oppose the British force, and the Americans fled westward in a panic, abandoning 200 sick comrades and muskets and artillery. Carleton decided not to pursue them but to await the full complement of reinforcements under Gen. John Burgoyne, swelling the British force at Quebec to 13,000 men.
Conclusion: British Victory

May 8-9, 1776 at Wilmington, Delaware

On May 8-9, on the Delaware River off the mouth of the Christiana Creek (which was located near Wilmington), 13 Pennsylvania galleys attacked 2 British ships. After a skirmish which lasted until the next day, the American fleet forced the British to withdraw downriver.
Conclusion: American Victory

May 11, 1776 at Orton, North Carolina

With the British fleet anchored offshore for two months awaiting for others coming from Ireland, both sides became quite anxious with the stalemate. General Sir Henry Clinton landed his men on the mainland of North Carolina and exercised them daily out of the range of snipers. Four companies of British Regulars were on Battery Island, four regiments on Bald Head Island, and the remainder were near Fort Johnston. Knowing that he would probably be called upon to attack Charlestown, Clinton drilled his men in street fighting.

Clinton decided to break the monotony and personally lead a night raid on the bridge at Orton Mill. Early on a Sunday morning, the British rowed upstream for 15 miles with muffled oars. At Patriot Brigadier General Robert Howe's home, Kendal Plantation, they pulled onshore. Clinton wanted to destroy the home of the man who had organized the first North Carolina militia units the year before.

Upon landing, the British made so much noise that the Patriot sentries heard them and killed one British soldier, Private George McIntosh, of the 44th Regiment of Foot. The sentries were also able to collect their horses and throw open the fences holding the cattle.

Clinton ordered his men to fix bayonets and approach the house. His men did not find any soldiers, but they treated the women of the house quite roughly. One was shot through the hip, another stabbed with a bayonet and a third was butt-stroked with a musket. So brutal was the treatment that Clinton later provided them with financial reimbursement. During this raid, the British had several men wounded by the Patriots hiding in the surrounding darkness, and one British sergeant was taken prisoner.

After searching the house, the British marched on to Orton Mill, where Major William Davis commanded a detachment of ninety North Carolina Continentals. Major Davis heard them approaching and withdrew with his baggage and two swivel guns. The British burned the mill and then plundered homes along the way back to their boats. All they obtained from this raid were three horses and three cows.
Conclusion: British Victory

May 12-13, 1776 at Cockspur Island, Georgia

On May 12, a raiding party of Georgians sailed to Cockspur Island. At 11:00 A.M., they made their way to the British post on Cockspur Island. They were attempting to capture "a White Man a Pilot & some Negroes." The British discovered the raiders before they attacked. They fired on the raiders, killing one of them instantly. The raiders withdrew back to their boats to escape from the island.

The sloops HMS Raven and HMS Cherokee sent a detachment of sailors in 3 boats to the west end of the island to prevent the raiders from escaping. They managed to capture one of the raider's boats that contained 3 wounded men. They prisoners told them that an armed schooner, commanded by Capt. John Brown, was waiting for them up the Savannah River at 4 Mile Point.

On May 13, in the morning, the naval detachment sailed up the Savannah River in a pinnace and 2 boats. They were trying to find the armed schooner. Two other boats were assigned to guard Cockspur Island while they were conducting their attack. The sailors quickly captured the schooner along with its 8-man crew. The schooner was taken back to the island. At 11:00 P.M., the British captured 3 more raiders as they were trying to escape up the river.
Conclusion: British Victory

May 17, 1776 at Nantasket Roads, Massachusetts

On May 17, the USS Franklin, commanded by Capt. James Mugford, captured the HMS Hope, a British supply ship transporting entrenching tools and 1,500 barrels of powder to Boston.

Reacting furiously, the British command in Boston Harbor sent out 13 boats with more than 200 men to board the Franklin during the night. Armed with muskets and spears, Mugford's sailors drove off the British force, but Mugford himself died in the struggle.
Conclusion: American Victory

May 17, 1776 at Brunswick Town, North Carolina

On May 17, Col. Charles Cornwallis was sent on a secret mission. His mission was to take 900 British Regulars and sail up the Cape Fear River to Brunswick Town. Once there, they were to burn the town.

The town was a base camp of American rebels. The British surprised the sentinentals on the outskirts of town. They quickly took possession of the town and found a small garrison there. They proceeded to burn the town and took 20 bulls and 6 horses.
Conclusion: British Victory.

May 19, 1776 at Nantasket, Massachussetts

On May 19, the USS Franklin and the USS Lady Washington were heading toward the bay. The British saw them and sent several ships to capture the American ships. During the night, the British attacked. The Franklin was run aground with its crew getting offshore and forming up in a battle line.

About 12 British ships carrying 200 men landed and attempted to capture the Americans. The British were surprised and their attack was repulsed after a 1/2 hour fight.
Conclusion: American Victory

May 20-21, 1776 at Charlestown Harbor, South Carolina

Admiral Peter Parker sent Major James Moncrief of the Royal Engineers in the armed schooner HMS Pensacola Packet to conduct a reconnaissance of Charlestown. On May 20, Capt. Simon Tufts and the HMS Defense arrived with a recently captured New York brigantine that had been whaling. The Royal Navy frigate HMS Sphinx spotted the Defense entering the harbor and followed her, then waited at the entrance to the harbor with HMS Pensacola Packet.

HMS Pensacola Packet lowered three boats to allow Major Moncrief sound the bar. He determined that the British fleet could make it over the bar and then noticed the half-finished fort on nearby Sullivan's Island. He was able to get inside the fort and walk around and sketch the construction. When he went back to his boats, Patriot sentinels figured out what was going on and fired at him.

On May 21, Capt. Joseph Turpin and his Comet arrived with a new prize - the St. James. [author's note, this account is not 100% accurate because the St. James had been captured back in March, so perhaps the two skirmishes are blended together, or the St. James had been recaptured and put back into operations]. According to the account, it is now the HMS Sphinx that pursued the Comet, but the St. James had to be abandoned and set onfire.

HMS Sphinx continued to patrol the harbor because Major Moncrief needed to scout the other defenses around Charlestown. HMS Pensacola Packet captured a small coasting sloop from Georgetown with a load of turpentine. The same day, five deserters of the SC 2nd Regiment rowed out to HMS Sphinx and were welcomed aboard.

Even though the British ships captured a few small prizes they were not able to complete their mission of thoroughly scouting Charlestown's defenses. The Comet repeatedly drove them off.
Conclusion: British Victory

June of 1776

June ??, 1776 at Round Mountain, North Carolina

South Carolinians Capt. Edward Hampton and his brother, Capt. Preston Hampton had been sent on a mission to seek peace with the Cherokee nation. Instead of being welcomed as emissaries, the Hamptons were held captive by the Cherokees and had their horses, guns, and a case of pistols taken from them.

The two brothers managed to escape and to return home. A short time later, Indian leaders came to the Hampton home and recognized Preston, their former prisoner. He did not trust the Cherokees and sent his children to warn the neighbors that the Indians were at his home.

Preston's father, Anthony, came out to talk to the Indians and as he was shaking hands with the chief, Big Warrior, another Cherokee fired and mortally wounded Preston. The Chief let go of Anthony's hand and drove a tomahawk through his skull. Another Indian grabbed their infant son and dashed him against the wall of the house. Anthony's terrified wife was killed with a tomahawk.

After this attack, the men of the nearby settlement met at the Bock House on the Pacolet River. They chose a 16-year-old Thomas Howard as their leader to exact revenge. An Indian boy named Skyuka guided Capt. Howard and his men to Round Mountain, where the Cherokees were celebrating their victory.

Capt. Howard pitched camp at the base of Round Mountain on the suggestion of Skyuka. When it became dark, several bonfires were lit and three men were left there with instructions to shout and yell as if they were having a big celebration. They were also instructed to quickly pass in front of the fire to make it seem as though there were many more men that just the three of them.

Then, Capt. Howard led the remainder of his men on a circular route and approached the Cherokees from the rear. These militiamen completely suprised the Indians and almost all were killed.

Skyuka was later captured by Loyalists and hanged from a sycamore tree at the foot of Tryon Mountain. There is now a stream there named Skyuka Creek. This engagement is also known as Howard's Gap, after the young man who led this fierce act of revenge.
Conclusion: American Victory

June 7, 1776 at Newburyport, Massachusetts (USS Yankee Hero vs. HMS Melford)

On June 7, the American privateer, USS Yankee Hero, was en route to Boston. The ship was attacked by the British frigate HMS Melford, commanded by Capt. John Burr.

Outnumbered 4-to-1, the Yankee Hero's crew courageously battled for 2 hours before they had to surrender.
Conclusion: British Victory

June 14, 1776 at Sorel, Canada

On June 14, Gen. John Sullivan ordered a retreat to Lake Champlain. He loaded his 2,500 men aboard bateaux and evacuated the entire city. The British fleet arrived within an hour of the Americans' departure and occupied Sorel.
Conclusion: British Victory

June 16, 1776 at Chambly, Quebec

On June 16, Col. Benedict Arnold's men fought a rear-guard action against the pursuing British force and continued their retreat.
Conclusion: British Victory

June 16, 1776 at Stono Creek, South Carolina

The privateer Polly, commanded by Capt. Francis Morgan, tried to run the gauntlet of British ships and make it into Charlestown Harbor. The Polly was carrying a cargo of 300 barrels of gunpowder, 20 chests of cartridges, several hundred stands of arms, 90 barrels of rum, sugar, and gin from St. Eustatia.

The Polly ran aground near Stono Creek, and that night, the Patriots scuttled and abandoned her. The HMS Bristol sent eight boats, under the command of Lt. Molloy, to investigate and attempt to refloat the Polly, but she had five feet of water in her hold. So, they set her on fire, and she "blew up with a great Explosion... It would have been much greater but she had five feet of water in her hold, which had damaged a great deal of the Powder."
Conclusion: Inconclusive Victory

June 24, 1776 at Ile aux Nois, Quebec

The retreating American force, with Col. Benedict Arnold's and Brig. Gen. John Sullivan's troops now combined, paused at Ile aux Nois. Although numbering 8,000 men, the majority of them were suffering from smallpox, dysentery, or malaria. All of them were suffering from exhaustion, hunger, hardship, and the demoralization of defeat.

With all of these, the Americans were barely able to repulse a modest British probe by an advance guard. Sullivan ordered the retreat to continue, accepting the failure of the Canada expedition.
Conclusion: British Victory

June 26, 1776 at Seneca, South Carolina

On June 26, Capt. James McCall and a 30-man detachment from the South Carolina Rangers were sent on a peace mission to the Cherokee Nation. The Rangers were ambushed at Seneca by a party of Indians. McCall was captured but later escaped from his captors.
Conclusion: British Victory. Casualties: Americans: 4k, 1w, 4c

June 28, 1776 at Breach Inlet, South Carolina

On June 9, General Sir Henry Clinton landed his ground forces ashore on Long Island just across from Sullivan's Island from the Breach Inlet. The South Carolinians on Sullivan's Island and at Haddrell's Point watched the British land and carry their supplies ashore.

On June 16, Clinton rode out into heavy surf and conducted his own reconnaissance of Sullivan's Island. He concluded that his troops should not waste their time firing upon Fort Moultrie from Long Island nor should they attempt to cross the water between Long Island and Sullivan's Island anywhere other than the Breach, at the northern tip of Sullivan's Island. Vice-Admiral Sir Peter Parker had earlier mis-informed Clinton that the Breach was only eighteen inches deep at low tide and that his men could stroll across from Long Island to Sullivan's Island.

On the same day, a few British sailors on board the HMS Ranger deserted to Fort Moultrie, and they informed Col. William Thomson (SC 3rd Regiment) that there were approximately 2,800 men under the command of Clinton.

On June 19, the British 1st Brigade marched up to the Breach and looked across the inlet to witness the recently acquired Patriot re-inforcements awaiting them on Sullivan's Island - their enemy appeared to be "entrenched up to their eyes." General Clinton was convinced that he was facing over 4,000 Patriots. That night, several of Clinton's men were shot by Patriot sentries just across the water, so the British quickly moved back out of reach.

On June 21, Col. William Thomson's men fired several artillery shots at the armed schooner HMS Lady William and a pilot boat lying in the creek between Long Island and the mainland. For the next few days, the British reciprocated by lobbing a few shells onto Sullivan's Island, but without any effect. President John Rutledge grew impatient with the taciturn General Clinton so he offered a reward of thirty guineas to any man who could capture one of the British on Long Island.

On the night of June 24, three of Col. Thomson's men decided to go for the reward - two working together, and one lone rifleman. The lone rifleman laid in ambush until the morning when he spotted two figures approaching. They fired first, striking him in the thigh - it was the other two Patriots, who didn't recognize their compadre until they were halfway back across the waterway.

On June 25, a British patrol followed the tracks of the three riflemen and started to cross the Breach - which they continued to "assume" was only eighteen inches deep at low tide. Col. Thomson's battery on Sullivan's Island fired upon them before they could wet their boots, so they marched to an oyster bank and began firing at the Patriots, again with no effect.

The Patriots approached their position to within 200 yards, firing sporadically, and killing one of the British soldiers. When the South Carolinians reached about 180 yards, the British fired a well-aimed volley that stopped them for about ten minutes. By now, the British brought down two 6-pounders to the beach and began firing upon the Patriots and their artillery, but the British lost two men making this happen.

At the oyster bank, the British built a small battery and placed two howitzers, two mortars, and the two 6-pounders in it. They fired upon the Patriots for several days - and in the British records they claim to have killed several Patriots, but no American records substantiate their claim.

Clinton was hesitant to cross the Breach because the Patriots had dug two entrenchments, one 500 yards behind the other. After skirmishing across the waterway on June 25, the Patriots dug a second battery 500 yards back to remain out of range from the British artillery. The forward battery had a swamp on one side and abatis in the front. Clinton wrote, "it was apparent that the few men I had boats for, advanced singly through the narrow channel uncovered and unprotected, could not now attempt a landing without a manifest sacrifice."

On June 27, twenty of the Royal Highalnd Emigrants set up an ambush near the oyster bank battery. They had watched the Catawba Indians under Patriot Capt. Samuel Boykin move out earlier and guessed the route they would use to return. As the Catawbas moved in file along the open beach, the Loyalists fired upon them. Patriot Capt. Henry William Harrington (Cheraws District Regiment of Militia) was observing from Haddrell's Point and later wrote, "the enemy began to fire, and aimed their shot directly at the Indians, who caused us to laugh heartily by their running and tumbling, several of them whooping and firing their muskets over their shoulders backward. I confess, though the bullets poured around me, I laughed my inclination."

Around 2:00 PM on the day that the British ships were attacking Fort Moultrie (same day - June 28th), General Clinton's ground forces prepared to mount an attack from their base on Long Island, across the Breach Inlet. They marched down to the beach as the noise of the naval battle echoed around the harbor, growing louder each minute. The schooner HMS Lady William and the sloop HMS Ranger flanked the ground troops, protecting them from any attack from the SC Navy's Defense. A flotilla of 15 flatboats, with light guns on their bows, also covered them.

Due to the small number of boats, only roughly 700 British soldiers could cross at a time. One flatboat could only carry one company of men. Clinton ordered the 1st Brigade to their flatboats while the 33rd Regiment and part of the artillery crossed over to Green Island where the oyster shell battery had been built earlier. The 2nd Brigade had been ordered to the beach on Long Island to await their chance to cross the Breach when the fifteen flatboats were to return.

Clinton had asked Vice-Admiral Sir Peter Parker to send some frigates to the west to enfilade the fort on Sullivan's Island. While this was going on, General Clinton would attack the Patriot battery on Haddrell's Point and attempt to take Mount Pleasant. Vice-Admiral Parker agreed, but his ships ran aground on what would later become Fort Sumter, and one of the ships, the HMS Actaeon, was burned.

Clinton, unaware of the Navy's misfortunes, commenced an artillery bombardment on the Patriot position prior to landing his assault troops. A large Coehorn mortar fired into the far battery, while two howitzers and two 6-pounders fired into the forward battery. The Patriots returned fire by sending grapeshot from their 16-pounder into the British breastworks. Musket and rifle balls whistled among the British troops, but the breastwork was so high that no one was injured.

After attempting two landings and suffering heavy casualties, Clinton ordered his flatboats back to Long Island. During this, the Patriots had one man wounded by British artillery fire.
Conclusion: American Victory

JULY OF 1776

July ??, 1776 at Quaker Meadows, North Carolina

On July, Capt. Matthias Barringer and 7 militiamen went on a scouting expedition in the Quaker Meadows area. They were spotted by a Cherokee war party, who proceeded to massacre the Americans.

This attack would cause a severe retaliation against the Indians. From the Carolinas to Virginia, 4,000 militia came to destroy the Cherokee villages. Even some of the Loyalists joined up with the militia.
Conclusion: British Victory

July 1, 1776 at Seneca, South Carolina

On July 1, Capt. James McCall and a 20-man South Carolina Ranger detachment were sent to bring back some prisoners. The Indians at Seneca had encouraged Maj. Williamson to send McCall because they trusted him.

When McCall and his men approached Seneca, the Cherokees came out to meet the soldiers. McCall, his lieutenant, and another soldier was invited into town to eat dinner with the Indian chief. That night, the Indians attacked the Rangers camp. many of the Rangers managed to escape by fleeing the area but McCall and 6 others were captured.
Conclusion: British Victory

July 1, 1776 at Quaker Meadows, North Carolina

McDowell's Station was located at Quaker Meadows along the upper Catawba River in western Rowan County [near present-day Morganton]. During the Cherokee incursions of 1776, the Indians attacked and laid siege to the fort after killing 37 settlers along the Catawba River.

Others in the surrounding area quickly moved into the fort for protection. Lt. Col. Charles McDowell had ten men to protect 120 women and children at the time of the siege.

Brigadier General Griffith Rutherford mounted an expedition to relieve the fort, but he fully expected everyone to be massacred prior to his arrival. However to his surprise, the settlers were able to hold out against the Cherokees, and as Rutherford approached the siege was broken.

The Cherokees continued to harass Brigadier General Rutherford's militia until the full strength of his army arrived - over 2,400 men. This large group then invaded the Cherokee nation and destroyed 32 Middle Settlement towns and villages. Cherokee power was temporarily destroyed within North Carolina.
Conclusion: British Victory

July 3-12, 1776 at McDowell's Station, North Carolina

On July 3-12, the Cherokee Indians attacked and laid siege to McDowell's Station. The Station was located at Quaker Meadows, along the upper Catawba River. The Indians killed 37 settlers on the river during this time.

The remaining settlers in the area went to the fort for protection from the Cherokees. When the siege started, Col. Charles McDowell had 10 men and 120 women and children in the fort.

Brig. Gen. Rutherford mounted an expedition to relieve the fort. The settlers were able to hold out against the Cherokees. As the relief force arrived, the Indians stopped the siege and withdrew. They did harass the relief force until the entire force arrived.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 8-10, 1776 at Gwynn Island, Virginia

On January 1, Lord Dunmore, Virginia's royal governor, set fire to Norfolk and established a base at Gwynn Island. Gwynn Island was located just south of the mouth of the Rappahannock River. The island of 2,000 acres was 500 yards from the mainland. With his small British fleet and about 500 Tory troops, including runaway slaves, Dunmore had hoped to maintain a foothold in his province and establish a base from which to raid the neighboring plantations.

On January 8, Gen. Andrew Lewis arrived with a brigade of Virginia troops to eliminate this last vestige of royal authority.

On July 9, at 8:00 A.M., from 500 yards away, Lewis opened fire with 3 rounds from an 18-lb. gun on the HMS Dunmore. With a 18-lb. gun and a second battery of lighter guns, Lewis bombarded Dunmore's fleet, camp, and fortifications.

For an hour, the bombardment continued. Most of Dunmore's fleet tried to escape. Some were run aground and burned by their crew. A few ships fired back at the American position but they were quickly silenced. Lewis stopped his bombardment and gave Dunmore a chance to surrender.

At noon, Dunmore never answered back so Lewis started the bombardment again. Dunmore and his remaining ships managed to escape from the bombardment. The victorious Americans found numerous graves and dead and dying victims of smallpox when they crossed to the island.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 12, 1776 at Tappan Sea, New York

Admiral Richard Howe arrives off Staten Island with 150 ships conveying 11,000 additional soldiers for his brother, Gen. William Howe. The frigates HMS Phoenix and HMS Rose are then dispatched up the Hudson River and anchor off the Tappan Sea to interdict American communications there. En route, they engage numerous American shore batteries, killing six and wounding three.
Conclusion: British Victory

July 12, 1776 at Charlestown Harbor, South Carolina

South Carolina troops rowed out to a British ship, HMS Sphinx, that was attempting to cross back over the bar in Charlestown harbor and put back out to sea. British marines successfully defended the ship and forced the Patriot troops back.
Conclusion: British Victory

July 15, 1776 at Lyndley's Fort, South Carolina

On July 15, a group of Patriot settlers had taken refuge in Lyndley's Fort. The fort was located near Rabon Creek in Laurens County. They were attacked by a group of Loyalists and Indians. During the attack, the patroits were reinforced by 150 militia. This helped them to beat off the the attackers and routing them.
Conclusion: British Victory

July 16, 1776 at St. George's Island, Maryland

On July 16, the British force, commanded by Lord William Dunmore, landed part of the force on St. George's Island, near the mouth of the Potomac River. The British was driven off by the local militia.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 20, 1776 at Island Flats, Tennessee

On July 20, Dragging Canoe sent 20 Indians ahead of his main party as the advance guard. At the same time, 20 militiamen were sent out from Eaton's Station. They learned of the Indians approach and set up an ambush for them.

When the Indians arrived, they were ambushed with several of them wounded. As the Indians withdrew back to the main body, Capt. James Thompson and 150 militiamen set forth from Eaton's Station and headed towards the Indian camp.

Dragging canoe learned of this and set up an ambush for the Americans. as the militia's rear column passed through the ambush site, the Indians attacked.

The battle lasted for about an hour. With the Indians suffering more casualties (13k) than the militia (4w), the Indians broke off the attack. When Dragging Canoe was wounded in the thigh, the Indians broke off and withdrew.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 20-August 2, 1776 at Watauga, Tennessee (Siege of Fort Caswell/Watauga)

The nearby settlers came to Fort caswell for protection from the marauding Indians. The fort was commanded by Lt. Col. John Carter and was located on the Sycamore Shoals. They were reinforced by the garrison of Fort Lee, commanded by Lt. John Sevier. Carter was warned by Nancy Ward that a group of 300 Indians were being led by Old Abraham and Great Warrior were coming to attack them.

On July 20, women working outside the fort discovered the Indians and fled into the fort, warning the remainder of the garrison. The Indians fired on the fort, with the defenders firing back. When the Indians began suffering casualties, they backed off and laid siege to the fort. For 2 weeks, each side would take pot-shots at each other, without accomplishing anything.

On August 2, a relief force under Col. William Russel arrived at the fort and broke the siege.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: Americans: 25k&w; British: 25k&w

July 21, 1776 at Dewee's Inlet, South Carolina

On July 21, the transport HMS Glasgow Packet becam stuck on a sand bar at Dewee's Inlet. It sent out a small boat to alert the rest of the fleet that it was stuck and to send some help. The fleet was 12 miles away and upon hearing of the problem, sent the schooner HMS St. Lawrence and a flat-bottomed boat to assist the stuck ship.

A South Carolina Row Battery, commanded by Lt. Francis Pickering, discovered the Glasgow Packet and fired on it. Because of the angle of the ship being stuck on the shoal, it was unable to bring its guns to bear on the Patriot boat.

At 4:00 P.M., the South Carolinians boarded the Glasgow Packet and captured it. On board were 43 men of the Royal Highland Emigrants, 6 sailors, and 2 black Boatswains.

On July 22, the St. Lawrence arrived in the area to rescue the ship. Just as it reached the bar, the South Carolinians set fire to the transport.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 23, 1776 at Occoquan Creek, Virginia

On July 23, Lord William Dunmore was sailing his British force up the Potomac River when he turned into the Occoquan Creek to its falls and village. Once the British landed at the village, they proceeded to destroy the mill. By this time, the Prince William County militia arrived and drove off the British force.
Conclusion: Inconclusive Victory

July 24, 1776 at Sorrel River, Quebec

Information coming soon
Conclusion: British Victory

August of 1776

August 1, 1776 at Senecca, South Carolina

On August 1, Maj. Andrew Williamson was leading an expedition of 330 South Carolina militia against a band of 1,200 Cherokees, commanded by Loyalist Alexander Cameron, at Senecca. Williams force was ambushed in the early morning and defeated, as is a detachment coming to their aid, under Col. Andrew Pickens.

The Patriots were forced to withdraw and would have been annihilated if not for Col. Leroy Hammond. Hammond arrived with his mounted cavalry and after the militia regrouped, they made a charge into the Indians, burning houses and stored corn. This forced the Indian advance to halt. The Patriots were then able to retreat in good order. The Americans suffer 3 killed and 14 wounded.
Conclusion: British Victory

August 1, 1776 at Oconore, South Carolina

Information coming soon
Conclusion: British Victory

August 1, 1776 at PLACE, North Carolina

After the British instigated multiple Cherokee raids in July, the governments of North Carolina and South Carolina coordinated an offensive with the governments of Georgia and Virginia. North Carolinians under Brigadier General Griffith Rutherford were to rendevous with Major Andrew Williamson's South Carolinians and attack the lower and middle Cherokee settlements. The Virginians under Col. William Christian would march south and west and strike the Overhill Cherokees, and the Georgians would strike north and attack the Indian settlements in northern Georgia and South Carolina.

Brigadier General Griffith Rutherford began calling for men to assemble as early as the first week of July. His orders were for every county within the Salisbury District to provide every available man - and over 100 distinct companies answered the call, totalling over 2,500 men. Units also began to gather within the Hillsborough District - Orange and Chatham counties assembled and began marching - only to have to turn back since they could not find enough wagons to carry their provisions needed for the anticipated long trek.

Two rallying points were designated - Cathey's Fort and Davidson's Fort. Halfway between the two was a fairly large open field known as Pleasant Gardens, where Brigadier General Rutherford's camp was situated while his men assembled. On September 1st, his large army headed west for Indian territory.

In mid-September, South Carolina Col. Andrew Williamson [promoted at the end of August] left 300 men to guard Fort Rutledge (his base camp at Seneca Town, SC) and moved with approximately 2,000 men to rendezvous with North Carolina Brigadier General Griffith Rutherford. Guided by Catawba Indian scouts, Col. Williamson marched through Rabun Gap to the Tennessee River and reached the Indian town of Coweecho on September 17 - Brigadier Geneneral Rutherford was not there. The South Carolinians pushed onward through the narrow trails up the mountains, following the Coweecho River.

On September 19, Col. Williamson and his men marched into a major ambush at a steep-sided gorge known as the "Black Hole." [near present-day Franklin, NC] The advance party under Lt. Hampton found themselves under attack by 300 Cherokees and 50 Loyalists. Before the remainder of Col. Williamson's troops arrived, this advance party had to contend with fretful odds. It was not only a woodsman's fight from tree to tree, but also hand to hand. The battle lasted two hours. Due to the terrain of the steep gorge, there was no way to counter-attack except to charge straight towards the enemy, which the South Carolinians did, clearing a path with bayonets. The Cherokees were forced to withdraw when their gunpowder ran low.

On September 26, Col. Andrew Williamson finally met up with Brigadier General Griffith Rutherford at Hiwassee, creating a combined force of 4,500 Patriots to take the next step against the Cherokees - a step that was not taken. Rutherford and Williamson discussed moving further northward to link up with Virginia Colonel William Christian in what is now Tennessee, but both decided that they had accomplished enough for this trip.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 1, 1776 at PLACE, North Carolina

Word arrived quickly along the Holston River that the Indians would soon bring hostilities to the white settlers who were already in greater numbers than most realized. Makeshift forts were hurriedly thrown up and manned by all men (and many boys) available with guns - Watauga and Eaton's Station.

On July 20, Capt. James Thompson led five other captains with a total of about 170 backwoodsmen in an ambush against Dragging Canoe and his brother Little Owl at the battle known as Island Flats. After this battle and expulsion of the Indians, men returned to the fort at Long Islands which was built on the bank near the head of the Islands. Here they remained guarding this fort and surrounding country until the arrival of Colonel William Christian in early October.

While the locals were waiting for Col. Christian, the army under Brigadier General Griffith Rutherford assembled at Pleasant Gardens and commenced their westward march in late August or early September toward the Middle Towns in anticipation of linking up with the South Carolinians under Col. Andrew Williamson. Word reached camp of the troubles on the Holston River and Brigadier General Rutherford ordered the Surry County Regiment to divide its men and to send half up to the Hoston settlement. Col. Joseph Williams assembled eleven (11) companies and marched them back to Richmond then on to Holston. Col. Martin Armstrong and his eleven (11) companies from Surry County continued their march with Brigadier General Rutherford and the rest of the Salisbury District Militia.

The army of Col William Christian was made up of about 1,800 men and marched on October 6, from the Double Spring camp toward the Indian towns. They went down Lick Creek, in present Greene County to its junction with the Nolichucky River. During the night while the army was camped here, Ellis Hardin, a trader at the Cherokee towns, came into camp with information that the Indians were waiting on the south side of the French Broad River to contest the crossing. From the camp at the mouth of Lick Creek the army marched across the Nolichucky and up Long Creek to its head, then down Dumplin Creek to the French Broad River. The army's march was evidently along the Great War Path of the Indians, and the ford across the French Broad was near Buckingham Island.

Before the army reached the ford, they were met by Fallin, a trader who had a white flag, but this was disregarded by Col. William Christian. The Cherokee Nation was divided. One faction, led by Chief Dragging Canoe who had been wounded at the battle of Island Flats, wanted to abandon the towns along the Little Tennessee River and withdraw further down the Holston. The elders and others of the tribe wanted to remain in the beloved towns along the Little Tennessee River. This faction prevailed, and the Cherokees sent Nathaniel Gist to seek peace from Col. Christian. Later, Dragging Canoe, with many young Cherokees and some Creeks, would prevail and make many vicious raids against the settlers from the Chicamauga towns in the vicinity of the present day Chattanooga, Tennessee.

Col. Christian, having been told the Indians were prepared to contest the fording of the French Broad River at Buckingham Island, attempted a ruse. He had his men light a fire and pitch tents for each mess, as if the army meant to remain in camp on the north side of the French Broad River for several days. At 8:00 PM, he took 1,100 men, marched about four miles below Buckingham Island and crossed the river at the ford discovered there by some scouts from Capt. John Sevier's company. It was the intention of Col. Christian to attack the Indians drawn up to oppose the crossing of the river from behind before sunrise.

To Col. Christian's surprise there was no Indian force there. It is possible the crossing of the French Broad River was made the night of October 15; Col. Christian had stated in a report from the Double Spring Camp on October 6, that it was his intention to cross the French Broad River on October 15. Col. Christian allowed his men to remain in camp that day to dry their equipment and clothes which had gotten wet at the crossing made at the lower ford. While in camp on the south bank of French Broad River, in what is now Sevier County, the scout and traders from the Cherokee towns came in and reported that many of the Indian warriors had taken their families and fled south to the Hiwassee River, in present day McMinn, Meigs, and Bradley Counties.

After spending the following day in camp, the army resumed its march to the towns of the Overhill Cherokees along the Little Tennessee River, probably on October 16 or 17. From the fording of the French Broad River to Toqua Ford on the Little Tennessee River, the march led the army up the valley of Boyd's Creek, in present day Sevier County, and down Ellejoy Creek from its source in Sevier County to where it runs into Little River in present-day Blount County.

The army passed the present site of Maryville, Tennessee, and on Friday, October 18, crossed the Little Tennessee River near Toqua, probably at Tomotley Ford. That night was spent at Tomotley, the site of a Cherokee village downriver from Toqua. No opposition was found and next day, the forces of Col. Christian marched downriver, on the south side of the Little Tennessee passing through Tuskegee, then past the site of old Fort Loudoun which was destroyed by the Cherokees in 1760, to the Big Island Town (Mialaquo). Col. Christian made his headquarters at Big Island Town near the present Vonore, Monroe County, Tennessee.

The army camped near the Indian towns about six weeks and probably returned to their homes sometime in December.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 3, 1776 at Tappan Sea, New York

Lt. Col. Benjamin Tupper, commanding 5 small boats, attacked 5 British ships that had in mid-July had passed up the Hudson River from Staten Island and anchored at the Tappan Sea. The attack failed.
Conclusion: British Victory

August 7, 1776 at Portsmouth, New Hampshire

The American privateer USS Hancock, commanded by Capt. Wingate Newman, captured the British ship HMS Reward and brought it into port to unload the ship's cargo. The cargo included turtles intended for delivery to Lord North.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 8, 1776 at Cherokee Towns, South Carolina

To inflict suitable chastisement upon the Cherokees, several expeditions were at once made into their territories. Colonel McBury and Major Jack, from Georgia, entered the Indian settlements on Tugaloo, defeated the enemy, and destroyed all their towns on that river.

Major Andrew Williamson, of South Carolina, early in July, began to embody the Militia in the western portion of that state, and before the end of that month was at the head of an army of 1.150 men, marching to meet Cameron, who was, with a large body of Esseneca Indians and disaffected white men, encamped at Oconoree. The first battle was Seneca Town on August 1, then the Patriots set up a base camp at 23 Mile Creek so they could launch additional attacks against the Cherokees in the area.

After marching for two days, Williamson's forces destroyed the Lower Cherokee settlements of Keowee, Sugar Town, and Cheowee. Within another three days, this group also destroyed Jocassee and Brass Town, while a separate group went after other Indian towns in the neighborhood.

Encountering and defeating this body of the enemy, he destroyed their town and a large amount of provisions. He burned Sugar Town, Soconec, Keowee, Ostatoy, and Brass Town. He proceeded next against Tamassee, Chehokee, and Eustustie, where, observing a recent trail of the enemy, he made pursuit and soon met and vanquished 300 of their warriors. These towns he afterwards destroyed.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 10, 1776 at Tugaloo, South Carolina

On August 10, a group of Cherokees were defeated by a Patriot force, commanded by Col. Andrew Pickens. The patriots then proceeded to raze the Indian towns of Tugaloo and Estatoe.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 10, 1776 at Beaufort, South Carolina

Information coming soon.
Conclusion: Draw

August 12, 1776 at Tamassee, South Carolina

On August 12, a Patriot expedition, commanded by Cols. Andrew Williamson and Andrew Pickens, encountered a large Cherokee war party near the Indian town of Tomassy. The Indians were defeated with twice as many casualties as the patriots. After their victory, the patriots burned the town.
Conclusion: Draw

August 11, 1776 at Little River, South Carolina

On August 11, Maj. Andrew Pickens and a 25-man detachment rode out from Williamson's camp on Little River to do a reconnaissance mission. About 2 miles from camp, they were crossing an abandoned cornfield when they were surprised and surrounded by 185 Cherokees.

Pickens ordered his men to form 2 circles within each other and to fire their guns in relay. Some of the Indians rushed the ring, but were killed by bayonet, hatchet, or knives.

Pickens brother came with a rescue party soon after the attack started. The Indians broke off the fight and withdrew. The battle was also known as the "Ring Fight."
Conclusion: American Victory

August 12, 1776 at Oconee County, South Carolina

Major Andrew Pickens, while leading 25 men in a scouting party, was ambushed by a large force of Cherokees (185 or more, one source claims) who were beaten off after a fierce hand-to-hand action. "The Ring Fight" was known for the circular defense Pickens designed to hold off Cherokee attackers, until his brother Joseph arrived with Patriot reinforcements.

Pickens ordered his men to form two circles within each other, and to fire in relays. Two men would fire, then crouch in the tall grass to reload, and the next two men would fire. Some Indians rushed into the ring, but were killed by bayonet, knife, or hatchet. During the fight, Major Jonathan Downs was wounded in the abdomen and hand.

The Cherokees fled when Pickens's brother, Joseph, came with a rescue party. Sources claim 16 to 83 Indians were killed, depending on who one believes. After this battle, the Cherokee began to regard Pickens with a kind of awe and referred to him as Skyagunsta, or Wizard Owl, which was an expression that meant Great Warrior - or something like that.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 15, 1776 at Roanoke Inlet, North Carolina

On August 15, the British landed a 25-man foraging party near Roanoke Inlet. They were to capture some cattle they had earlier seen. On shore, Capt. Dennis Gauge commanded an independent militia company that patrolled between Currituck and Roanoke. The militia discovered the British and attacked them. The militia killed some of the British and captured the rest.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 16, 1776 at Tappan Sea, New York

On August 16, the Americans, commanded by Lt. Col. Benjamin Tupper, again tried to assault the 5 British ships at anchor. This time, they sent some fire rafts against the British.

Again, the attempt was unsuccessful, but the commander of the HMS Phoenix was alarmed and ordered the fleet to return down the Hudson River and rejoin the rest of the British fleet.
Conclusion: British Victory

August 23, 1776 at Long Island, New York

Near Bedford Pass on Long island, American soldiers, commanded by Col. Edward Hand, attacked a Hessian outpost. This forced Col. Carl von Donop's men to withdraw. A counterattack forced their own retreat in turn.
Conclusion: Draw

August 26, 1776 at Long Island, New York

Information coming soon
Conclusion: British Victory

August 27, 1776 at Atlantic Ocean

Capt. John Paul Jones, on the 12-gun sloop USS Providence, captures the British brig HMS Britannia.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 28, 1776 at Brookland, New York

During the Battle of Long Island, Brig. Gen. Nathaniel Woodhull and 100 militia had been posted on the eastern end of the island. Their mission was to protect the inhabitants and driving the cattle out of the British reach. When the Americans lost at Long Island, Woodhull gathered his force and moved to his headquarters at Jamacia. There, he awaited any further orders and reinforcements.

On August 28, during the night, Sir William Erskine and about 700 British troops headed towards Jamacia. They surprised Woodhull and many of his men at the Carpenter's house in a surprise attack. Many of the militia were captured, including Woodhull. Woodhull would eventually die while as a British prisoner.
Conclusion: British Victory

September of 1776

September 6-7, 1776 at Governor's Island, New York

On September 6-7, in New York harbor, Sgt. Ezra Lee attempted the first submarine attack in the history of warfare. In David Bushnell's "American Turtle", Lee tried to destroy the British ships in the area. The copper bottoms of the ships off Governor's Island were too thick to be damaged by the powder charges that were released by the "Turtle".
Conclusion: British Victory

September 6-7, 1776 at Bald Head Island, North Carolina

On September 6, during the night, Col. Thomas Polk sailed with 150 soldiers of the 4th North Carolina Regiment landed on Bald Head Island. As they were travelling through the woods, they were discovered by 5 sailors from the HMS Cruizer.

The Patriots captured the sailors but the alarm had already been sounded. The rest of the ship's crew took refuge at Fort George and fired on the Patriots. The fort's firing alerted the British ships near the island and a relief force was sent ashore.
The sloop-of-war HMS Falcon fired its cannon into the woods at the Patriots. This was to give the relief party a chance to arrive safely.

Polk decided to withdraw his force. As they were leaving, they burned a British cutter so that it would not pursue them. The Cruizer quickly mounted 4 of her 3-lb. cannon aboard the sloop HMS Defiance. Lt. Dickerson, commander of the Defiance, sailed with 5 other ships around the island to block any escape by Polk's force.

On September 7, at 1:00 A.M., Dickerson discovered 2 of Polk's boats at Buzzard's Bay, located near the mainland. The Defiance and the Falcon fired into the woods at the bay, but the Patriots returned fire with a 3lb. cannon. This kept the British ships away. The British were unable to destroy the boats and withdrew their fleet before sunrise.
Conclusion: Draw

September 19, 1776 at Coweecho River, South Carolina

On September 19, Col. Andrew Williamson was leading a column of South Carolina Patriots when they were ambushed by a group of Cherokees in a steep, wooded gorge of the Coweecho River. This place was known as the "Black Hole." After suffering heavy casualties, the Patriots made a frontal attack and was able to clear the pass.
Conclusion: American Victory

September 23, 1776 at Montresor's Island, New York

From this vantage point, which they occupied on September 10, the British navy could land their troops above Harlem or could flank the Americans at Kingsbridge. So Brig. Gen. ?? Heath secured Gen. George Washington's permission to send 240 men, under Lt. Col. Michael Jackson, to try to retake the island.

On September 23, Jackson and the men in the first boat landed near dawn and was immediately attacked. The other 2 boats withdrew instead of coming to Jackson's aid. Following their return, the 2 boatloads of "delinquents" were arrested and held for court-martial.
Conclusion: British Victory. Casualties: Americans: 14k&w

October of 1776

October ??, 1776 at French Broad River, North Carolina

On October 1, Col. William Christian and his backwoods army crossed the Holston River in a march towards the Cherokee Overhill Towns. At Chimney Top Mountain the troops rested at "Six Mile Camp" where Capt. John Sevier and Capt. James Robertson joined them.

As the backwoodsmen pushed on towards the Tennessee River, they found that the Cherokees had withdrawn into the mountains. They had left behind their horses, cattle, pigs, 50,000 bushels of corn, and 15,000 bushels of potatoes.

Col. Christian wrote that the Indians "retreat faster than I could follow." He wrote to Patrick Henry, "I know, Sir, that I could kill and take Hundreds of them, and starve hundreds by destroying their Corn, but it would be mostly the women and children." Col. Christian did not want to make war against women and children and wrote "I shewed pity to the distressed and spared the supplicants, rather than that I should commit one act of Barbarity."

No matter what he wrote, his army destroyed all they found. After massive retaliations all along the frontier, the Cherokees finally had enough. On July 2, the defeated Cherokees ceded lands to Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia in the Treaty at Long Islands, Tennessee.

The Cherokees ceded the state of South Carolina the present-day counties of Anderson, Pickens, Oconee, and Greenville. The Cherokee chielf Atta-Kulla-Kulla tried to appease the conquerors by offering 500 warriors to fight against the British, but the offer was not accepted and left hard feelings on both sides.

The warriors under Dragging Canoe, along with some Creek Indians and some Loyalists, refused to honor the treaty and moved to Chickamauga Creek where they established a new settlement. Alexander Cameron went with Dragging Canoe and continued to supply him with arms and ammunition.
Conclusion: American Victory

October 12, 1776 at Split Rock, New York

On October 12, at dawn, Col. Benedict Arnold anchored 5 of his ships at Schuyler's Island; the other boats had to sail farther ahead. He found 2 of his ships so badly damaged that they must be scuttled; a third ship ran aground. The 2 remaining boats sailed in pursuit of the fleet.

Surprised and enraged to find the Americans have escaped, Gen. Guy Carleton hastened after them. He caught up with them at Split Rock, where one American ship ran aground and 2 others were captured. Arnold's USS Congress sailed on to Crown Point, finding the rest of his fleet already there.
Conclusion: British Victory

October 12, 1776 at Throg's Point, New York

Gen. William Howe embarked with most of his army aboard 80 ships, traversed treacherous Hell Gate, and landed 4,000 troops on Throg's Point (Neck) in an effort to outflank the American position on Harlem Heights.

On October 12, when the British attempted to cross a causeway and a ford to Manhatten, American musket fire from only 25 rangers, under Col. Edward Hand, drove the British back.

The small American force was reinforced and both sides dug in. Howe's remaining force landed later in the day.
Conclusion: American Victory

October 22, 1776 at Mamaroneck, New York

On October 22, Col. John Haslet, with about 750 men, attacked Maj. Roger Rogers' 500-man corps of Tories, "The Queen's American Rangers." Though they lost the element of surprise, Haslet managed to capture 36 of the Tories and some muskets, which they brought to White Plains.
Conclusion: American Victory

October 27, 1776 at Neowee Creek, North Carolina

In the morning of October 27, five of Col. Thomas Neel's regiment (SC) were fired upon by a party of Indians about two miles from the camp at Neowee Creek. Two of the men made it back to the camp. Col. Andrew Williamson (SC) sent out a party, but they could not find any of the Indian attackers.
Conclusion: British Victory

November of 1776

November 1, 1776 at Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina (HMS Aurora captured)

On November 1, the brig HMS Aurora was bound for New York along with 18 other ships that were transporting supplies. The Aurora foundered near Ocracoke Inlet and the remainder of the fleet continued on their journey.

The Independent Company of Carteret County was stationed near Cape Lookout and saw the stuck ship. They sailed over to it, seized the cargo, and captured the entire crew.
Conclusion: American Victory

November 16, 1776 at City, New York

On November 16, while the British were attacking Fort Washington, Lord Hugh Percy and a column of his men drove in the American pickets at Harlem Cove. Once this was done, the British launched their attack in the old Harlem Heights defenses.
Conclusion: British Victory

November 16, 1776 at Cock-Hill Fort, New York

On the morning of November 16, during what became known as The Battle of Fort Washington, the fort was attacked and captured by a battalion of Hessian (German) Grenadiers who served in the British Army.
Conclusion: British Victory

December of 1776

December 7, 1776 at Tappan, New York

On December 7, a force of Tories and British marauders, known as "cowboys," pillaged the town of Tappan. They tormented local patriots and cut down their liberty pole.
Conclusion: British Victory

December 8, 1776 at Newport, Rhode Island

Gen. Sir Henry Clinton, under orders from Gen. William Howe, who had found Clinton's insistent advice aggrevating, sailed into Newport with 6,000 soldiers and took possession of Newport without any resistance.
Conclusion: British Victory

December 13, 1776 at Basking Ridge, New Jersey

On December 12, Maj. Gen. Charles Lee made camp a few miles south of Morristown. He was on his way to join Gen. George Washington's force. For reasons unknown, Lee did not stay at the camp but instead, he went to White's Tavern near Basking Ridge, about 3 miles from the American camp. Lee brought along a guard detachment of 19 troops with him.

Gen. James Cornwallis had learned that there was an American force close to his rear. He sent a cavalry detachment to patrol from his headquarters at Pennington, which was about 30 miles south of Lee's camp, to locate the American camp. Lt. Col. William Harcourt, with 29 cavalrymen from the 16th Light Horse and Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton, headed north that night.

On December 13, after a brief rest, the British patrol headed towards Morristown. When they were about 5 miles from Basking Ridge, a local Tory gave them information that stated where the location of the main American camp was. After capturing 2 American sentry's, they sentry's told Harcourt that Lee and his guard detachment were located at the tavern.

Not knowing if this information was correct, Harcourt sent Tarleton and 2 cavalrymen to a small hilltop nearby for some observation. Once Tarleton captured an American soldier and reported back to Harcourt, stating that the information was indeed correct.

At 8:00 A.M., Lee ordered his force to move forward but he stayed back at the tavern to finish some paperwork.

At 10:00 A.M., just after finishing up his paperwork, the British attacked the tavern from 2 sides. The British overwhelmed the guard detachment, which lee observed from an upstairs window. The British then opened fire on the tavern. Lee had waited for 15 minutes before deciding to send his Aide de Camp, Maj. William Bradford, to the door to give himself up.

The British gathered up the wounded and the prisoners and headed back to Pennington. They forgot to search the tavern and a few American soldiers escaped and returned to the American lines, informing Washington of Lee's capture. A search party was sent but by this time, the British forces had lee back at their headquarters.
Conclusion: British Victory

December 15, 1781 at Hackensack, New Jersey

Gens. William Heath and George Clinton raid Hackensack, snaring several British soldiers and arresting 509 Loyalists. A quantity of military supplies is also removed before British reinforcements arrive.
Conclusion: American Victory

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