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American Revolutionary War Battles

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List of Revolutionary War Battles for 1780

Success at Savannah led the British to invade South Carolina. Early in 1780, British forces under General Clinton landed near Charleston. They slowly closed in on the city, trapping its defenders.

On May 12, General Lincoln surrendered his force of about 5,500 patriots, almost the entire Southern army. Clinton placed General Charles Cornwallis in charge of British forces in the South and returned to New York City.

The loss of Charleston and so many patriot soldiers badly damaged American morale. However, the British victory had an unexpected result.

Soon afterward, bands of South Carolina patriots began to roam the countryside, battling loyalists and attacking British supply lines. The rebels made it risky for loyalists to support Cornwallis. The chief rebel leaders included Francis Marion, Andrew Pickens, and Thomas Sumter.

In July 1780, the Continental Congress ordered General Horatio Gates, the victor at Saratoga, to form a new Southern army to replace the one lost at Charleston. Gates hastily assembled a force made up largely of untrained militiamen.

The rest of his men consisted of disciplined Continentals. He rushed to challenge Cornwallis at a British base in Camden, S.C.

On Aug. 16, 1780, the armies of Gates and Cornwallis unexpectedly met outside Camden and soon went into battle. The militiamen quickly panicked and most of them turned and ran without firing a shot. The Continentals fought on until heavy casualties forced them to withdraw. The British had defeated a second American army in the South.

The disaster at Camden marked the low point in the Revolutionary War for the patriots. They then received a further blow.

In September 1780, the patriots discovered that General Arnold, who commanded a military post at West Point, N.Y., had joined the British side. The Americans learned of Arnold's treason just in time to stop him from turning West Point over to the enemy.

Cornwallis' victory at Camden in August 1780 led him to act more boldly.

In September, he charged into North Carolina before the Loyalists had gained firm control of South Carolina. After Cornwallis' departure, rebels in South Carolina terrorized suspected loyalists. In addition, patriot frontiersmen turned out to fight the British.

In October 1780, the left wing of Cornwallis' army, which was made up of loyalist troops, was surrounded and captured on Kings Mountain, just inside South Carolina. After the defeat at Kings Mountain, Cornwallis temporarily halted his Southern campaign and retreated to South Carolina.

In October 1780, the Continental Congress named Major General Nathanael Greene to replace Gates as commander of the Southern army. Greene was a superb choice because he knew how to accomplish much with extremely few resources.

Greene divided his troops into two small armies. He led one army and put Brigadier General Daniel Morgan in charge of the other. Greene hoped to avoid battle with Cornwallis' far stronger force while he rebuilt the Southern army.

Instead, Greene planned to let the British chase the Americans around the countryside. The plan worked; Cornwallis set out to trap Morgan's army.

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January of 1780

January 14, 1780 at Staten Island, New York

On January 14, a Patriot force, commanded by Brig. Gen. William Alexander, across large ice tracts to Staten Island. Their mission was to attack the British posts located there. Alexander had hoped to be able to surprise the British but their attack formation was spotted before it hit the posts. regardless, the mission was a success, including getting some British prisoners and some booty.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: 6k; British: 17c

January 16, 1780 at Trafalgar (The Moonlight Battle)

British Admiral George Rodney, with 21 ships of the line, engages an inferior Spanish squadron of 11 ships that departs Cadiz. Rodney, on his way to the Americas, gleans information about the Spanish squadron from a captured merchantman and reverses his course.

The Spanish, being outnumbered, try to flee back to port. Only one Spanish ship manages to return to the safety of the port of Cadiz. Although the victory has no major strategic significance, Rodney’s order of “general chase” and fighting by moonlight make this a legendary engagement.
Conclusion: British Victory

January 18, 1780 at Eastchester, New York

An American raiding party, under Capt. Samuel Lockwood, captures a Loyalist colonel, Isaac Hatfield, at Eastchester. They were soon dispersed by pursuing cavalry. The Americans ended up losing 23 killed and 40 captured.
Conclusion: British Victory

January 25, 1780, at Elizabethtown, New Jersey

On January 25, the British, led by Cornelius Hatfield Jr., raided both Elizabethtown and Newark. The British made a night raid on Elizabeth Town to surprise and capture American troops there and in Newark. They set fire to the Presbyterian Church and adjacent courthouse. "Both were burned to the ground.

A tragic aspect of the fire was that the raiding party was guided by three brothers, Cornelius, Job and Smith Hetfield, Tory sons of the patriot Cornelius Hetfield Sr.

Consumed by the flames were many historical records and papers of the church, including much pertaining to Reverend James Caldwell. British reports indicated that two majors, three captains, and 47 privates were captured with horses, arms and accouterments."
Conclusion: British Victory

February of 1780

February 3, 1780 at Young's House, New York

a British force of two British Guards Regiments, plus a force of Hessians, mounted Jagers, and 100 mounted Tories, made up the force of 550 men. The Tories from Westchester County joined the British force which had set out on February 2nd from Fort Knyphausen (formerly Fort Washington) with the intention of attacking and capturing "Young's House".

The British and American forces were not even numerically matched (450 Americans vs. the British 400 foot soldiers and 150 mounted horsemen). The American force was not only inferior in numbers but also in battle experience; the most outstanding differences being combat experience, the addition of mounted Jagers, and 100 mounted Tories from Westchester County. These gave the British Commander Colonel Norton an advantage not only of men but also overwhelming mobility.

The attack on "Young's House" began when the perimeter guard force was engaged and overrun by Norton's men. Alerted by the firefight between the perimeter guard and the British, Thompson formed his troops in what appears to have been a U shaped formation around the house. Colonel Norton also spread his force entirely around the house, thereby cutting off any avenue of escape for the Americans. Ward states that there was "a hot exchange of fire for about fifteen minutes."

Finally, attacked from all sides, the Americans gave way. Some retreated, forcing their way through the British lines while others took cover in the house. The house was well defended but was overrun and all within the house were killed or captured, including the owner. The final act was to set the house afire before withdrawing the force to return to Fort Knyphausen. American losses were heavy, especially among the officers.

The American leader Lt. Colonel Thompson and seven of his officers were killed. In total, American losses were 14 killed, 37 wounded and 76 taken prisoner. British losses were 5 killed and 18 wounded. While this was a setback, it was quite simply a target of opportunity; not a decisive battle and it had no effect on the further prosecution of the war on either side.
Conclusion: British Victory

February 3, 1780 at Mount Pleasant, New York

A British/German force of 550 men, under Lt. Col. Chapple Norton, departs Fort Knyphausen (Fort Washington) and advances against an American outpost at nearby Mount Pleasant. His target is 450 Continentals of the 10th Massachusetts, under Lt. Col. Joseph Thompson, billeted in and around Young's House.

Norton gains the American's rear and defeats them with losses of 14 killed, 37 wounded, and 76 captured. The British sustains 5 killed and 18 wounded.
Conclusion: British Victory

February 22, 1780 at Stono, South Carolina

On February 18th, Major John Jameson of the 1st Continental Light Dragoons (VA) captured three British soldiers of the 23rd Regiment of Foot when they drifted too far from their lines. On the night of February 19th, a British row galley blew up in the Stono River. It was blamed on two drunken sailors who had a "nymph" with them.

On February 22nd, Major Hezekiah Maham, of Col. Daniel Horry's SC Light Dragoons Regiment, and Capt. William Sanders of the Round O Militia company within the Colleton County Regiment, conducted a reconnaissance of the British lines near Stono Ferry. They managed to capture Capt. McDonald and eight men on a British picket. This was the first "offensive" action since the British had landed on February 11th.
Conclusion: American Victory

February 26, 1780 at Oohey River, South Carolina

Major Chevalier Pierre-François Vernier commanded the remnants of Pulaski's Legion (he was killed at the Siege of Savannah) and his troops were posted on the Stono River to monitor the incoming British movements after their landing on James Island in February of 1780.

Every day, each British brigade sent out 100 men to capture and drive in livestock and to acquire forage for their horses. The locals informed Major Vernier that a British foraging party had moved out of the British lines near the Oohey River (a small stream on James Island). This included several officers of the 7th and the 23rd Regiments of Foot, and fifty of their men who went out to collect slaves, livestock, and forage.

Major Vernier followed alongside them on their return march until they were inside the narrow approaches between two ponds. He set up an ambush at this chokepoint.

The British foragers marched back in raised spirits and without any formation. The soldiers were intermingled with the livestock. When they entered the kill zone, Major Vernier attacked them on all sides and killed or wounded nearly half of them. The inexperienced British soldiers fired their muskets too soon and before they could reload Major Vernier's lancers killed three Fusiliers.

The Jaegers on duty in the camp rushed to rescue their comrades. An intense firefight developed and Major Vernier withdrew, leaving a sergeant, four soldiers, two lancers, and three horses behind to be captured. The British lost ten (10) men killed and nine (9) wounded.
Conclusion: American Victory

February 26-March 2, 1780 at Fort Johnson, South Carolina

After Fort Johnson was occupied by Gen. Clinton on February 26, the Continental Navy ships Providence and Ranger fired into the fort with little or no effect.The next day, the Continental Navy ships Boston and Ranger and the South Carolina frigate Bricole moved from Sullivan's Island and fired on Fort Johnson.

Three British were killed in the bombardment. To counter the naval firepower the British moved in a 24-pounder, 12-pounder and an 8 inch howitzer.

On February 27, some transport ships arrived from Savannah with the grenadier companies of the 63rd and 64th Regiments, and one battalion of the 71st Highlanders. There was also “two companies of Negroes from Savannah. The remainder were supply and horse ships." The horses would be used to haul cannons to the newly constructed positions, but the horses were not put to work for a few more days, so the soldiers had to drag the artillery to their camps.

On February 28th, while work was being done on a redoubt in Fort Johnson, the Boston and Ranger both fired into the fort from an unprotected side. A Hessian captain brought up some of the Hessian Grenadiers, and two artillery pieces, and returned fire. One shot by the Boston killed a gunner, and two grenadiers of the Grenadier Battalion von Graff. The 42nd Highlanders moved a fieldpiece into the road leading to Fort Johnson and also fired upon the ship. General von Kospoth recalled the grenadiers and the fieldpieces, and the frigates moved away from the fort. The British moved two 24-pounders, “en barbette”, into the unprotected side of the fort.

Clinton rode out to the fort and ordered General von Kospoth to “retire into the woods with his Brigade, so that he should not be exposed to the cannonading.” Carl Bauer described Fort Johnson as the fort that “General Prévost destroyed last year and of which one can still see the ruins… consist of tabby bricks and the trunks of palmetto trees…Behind Fort Johnston a redoubt was built on an old cemetery, to which heavy cannons and ammunition were brought.

A great number of dead corpses were dug up, which struck us as all the more curious since this island was not thickly inhabited. Therefore we asked about the cause and learned that these were all soldiers from two English regiments, who had been quartered in a nearby and now destroyed barracks. Both regiments had died out almost completely in one year after their arrival from Europe. This news caused us to wish that we would not remain here very long.”

On March 2nd, the Providence, Boston, Ranger, Bricole, Notre Dame and several other galleys, fired into Fort Johnson again, with
no effect. When the first British schooners appeared off the bar the American fleet ceased the shelling of Fort Johnson.
Conclusion: British Victory

March of 1780

March 5, 1780 at Mathew's Ferry, South Carolina

Late in the afternoon of March 4th elements of Pulaski's Legion scouted the British redoubt at Mathew's Ferry. At 11 o'clock the next day they returned to test the defenses of the works. The British fired upon the reconnaissance patrol, and Vernier's men suffered the loss of several men and horses.

Captain Ewald commanded the position that Vernier had tested, and he expected the Americans to return.15 Ewald placed six Highlanders and six Jägers in two ambush positions along the main road. Two other Jägers were placed in a sentry position in the open, as a decoy, in front of the works. Around 7:00 PM, Pulaski's Legion horse appeared and circled the sentries to cut them off from the works. When Vernier's men got in the kill zone of the ambush, the sentries fired, signaling the hidden soldiers to fire on the cavalry. Nearly all of the Vernier's cavalry was shot or bayoneted. A few were able to escape into the night.

On March 6, Captain Ewald was ordered to abandon the Mathew's Ferry works. He pulled down the earthworks, set the abatis on fire and crossed the Stono River. After crossing he destroyed the boats he had used. Clinton's entire army, except for a small detachment, had moved over from Johns Island to James Island.
Conclusion: British Victory

March 6-7, 1780 at Charlestown (Ferguson's Plantation), South Carolina

On the night of March 6, the two British light infantry battalions tried to surprise the American cavalry near Ferguson's plantation, by crossing the Wappoo River and marching throughout the night. Unfortunately for the British an officer's servant had deserted and warned the American cavalry.

When the British arrived they found that the Americans had fled. The Light Infantry was worn out from the fourteen-mile march over clay paths, and on the return eight of the men had to be left behind, too fatigued to make it back.

Major Maham, of the South Carolina State Cavalry, sent word to the Continental Light Dragoons, that the British were on the
mainland. The Light Dragoons had spent an enjoyable time at their plantation by playing cards, hunting and dancing at night with the local beauties, but within the hour they headed towards the retreating British. The Dragoons captured seven of the eight stragglers. The eighth man had overcome his exertion, and rejoined his unit.
Conclusion: American Victory.

March 8, 1780 in McPhersonville, South Carolina

During the Revolutionary War, British troops occupied the plantation of Isaac McPherson (described as “a great Rebel, a man of property” in contemporary reports) in March, 1780, after unsuccessfully trying to chase down 50 American troops on horseback. During their stay the British engaged in what they thought was a skirmish with the enemy, but mistakenly attacked their own troops.

The British left McPherson's Plantation and marched to the crossing of the Saltketcher (now the Salkehatchie) River, where a bridge had stood before the beginning of the war. They were met by 80 American militiamen who tried to prevent their crossing. The British Light Infantry crossed the river below this spot and came up behind the Americans. A captain and 16 privates were bayoneted to death by the British.
Conclusion: British Victory

March 11, 1780 at Wappoo Creek, South Carolina

USS Notre Dame fired on British troops on the shoreline at the mouth of Wappoo Creek outside of Charlestown.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

March 12, 1780 at Two Sisters' Ferry, South Carolina

On March 11, a column of British and Loyalists led by Capt. Archibald Campbell crossed the Savannah River at Two Sisters' Ferry and camped about a quarter of a mile from the river.

On March 12, the British foraging party dispersed a Patriot group of Light Horse led by Capt. Felix Warley. Capt. Campbell was wounded.
Conclusion: British Victory

March 14, 1780 at McPherson's Plantation, South Carolina

During the Revolutionary War, British troops occupied the plantation of Isaac McPherson (described as “a great Rebel, a man of property” in contemporary reports) in March of 1780, after unsuccessfully trying to chase down fifty Patriot troops on horseback. During their stay, the British engaged in what they thought was a skirmish with the enemy, but mistakenly attacked their own troops. These friendly forces were under Major Charles Cochrane and the American Volunteers with Major Patrick Ferguson, who was wounded slightly.
Conclusion: British Victory

March 14, 1780 at Mobile, West Florida (Alabama)

On March 14, an expedition, commanded by Spanish Louisiana Governor Bernado de Galvez, after a month-long siege by land and sea, with more than two thousand men under his command, captured the British stronghold of Fort Charlotte at Mobile.
Conclusion: Spanish Victory

March 15, 1780 at St. Andrew's Parish Church, South Carolina

Lt. Col. James Webster with his 33rd Regiment of Foot and a detachment of Hessians marched up the road along left bank of the Ashley River to cover Lt. Col. Robert Abercromby, who intended to forage at Hammond's Plantation on March 12th, near St. Andrew's Parish Church.

Lt. Col. Webster ran into a patrol of roughly 150 Patriots at Savage's Plantation, and these two forces skirmished for over two hours, during which time two Hessians were wounded. The Patriot force withdrew to attack Lt. Col. Abercromby, quickly followed by Lt. Col. Webster.

At daybreak on March 15, Lt. Col. Thomas Dundas was sent to forage in and around the St. Andrew's Parish Church, again with support from Lt. Col. James Webster. The Patriots had placed many riflemen near a bridge that had been demolished nearby. Lt. Col. Webster's men skirmished with these riflemen, but neither side suffered any casualties.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

March 17-18, 1780 at Salkehatchie River, South Carolina

After Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton confiscated many horses in and around Beaufort, he passed through Jacksonborough on March 17th and met a small group of SC Militia on horseback - killing three, wounding one, and capturing one. This skirmish could be called the skirmish at Jacksonborough.

On March 17, a British force, commanded by Capt. Abraham DePeyster, had detected a Patriot reconnaissance patrol, commanded by Col. James Ladson, some 6 miles to their front of their position. The patrol consisted of the Colleton County militia. The militia had been felling trees across the roads leading to the Saltketcher Ferry and destroying all of the boats along the river so that the British could not use them to cross the river. The British was ordered to pursue the militia, which they did.

On March 18, Paterson's army reached the Salkehatchie River, where about 80 Patriot militia under Major Ladson had destroyed the bridge and occupied a tavern on the east bank in order to annoy the enemy advance. The British assigned part of the Legion to return their fire and keep them occupied while the remainder of the advance guard forded the river further down, outflanked Ladson's men, and attacked them from the rear. Several American troops were shot or bayoneted; the rest fled.
Conclusion: British Victory

March 21, 1780 at Wappoo Cut, South Carolina

On March 18, two grenadier battalions left Fort Johnson and joined the forces at Hudson's House on James Island. The British had constructed a fort there and it was occupied by Major Thomas Mecan of the 23rd Regiment of Foot, and 120 men of the Hessian Regiment von Benning. By the next day, Hudson's house was surrounded by a breastwork 12-feet thick. Two redoubts were constructed 300 feet away from the fort, with abatis of sharpened apple and peach tree limbs. The left redoubt was on the Stono River and the right redoubt was on the Wappoo Canal. The fort was built to protect the British fleet and transport vessels on their approach to Charlestown.

On March 21, Hessian Capt. Johann Ewald conducted a reconnaissance of the Patriot lines and found the place where the main Patriot guard stationed himself. He also discovered the different paths of the guard posts, and then placed a corporal and five men on one of these paths. The men were to remain until they were able to ambush a returning Patriot guard.

About midnight, a party of Patriot dragoons rode up to the redoubts on the Wappoo Canal and fired their pistols. Upon their return the Hessians ambushed them. One sergeant major was wounded and captured.
Conclusion: British Victory

March 22, 1780 at ??, South Carolina

On March 22, Brig. Gen. Alexander Leslie was leading a British force toward Dayton Hall and Middleton Place. At the bridge crossing at St. Andrew's Creek, they were fired upon by some Patriot artillery. At 7:00 P.M., Capt. Edwald took a small detachment and crossed the creek. When they arrived at the Patriot position, they found that the Patriots had abandoned it. They spotted the retreating Patriots and attacked them. A small skirmish ensued, with both sides withdrawing after a few casualties.
Conclusion: Draw

March 23, 1780 at Colleton County, South Carolina

On March 23, a party of mounted rebel militia were surprised by the British. The Indians were driven off of Bee's Plantation.
Tarleton: “The inhabitants of Carolina having heard of the loss of the cavalry horses at sea, had flattered themselves that they could not be speedily recruited. In order to confine the British troops as much as possible to the line of march, and to prevent their collecting horses in the country, some of them accoutred themselves as cavaliers, and a few days after the junction of the dragoons from Beaufort, ventured to insult the front of General Patterson's [Paterson's] corps, which was composed of his cavalry, who made a charge, unexpected by the Americans, and without any loss took some prisoners, and obtained a number of horses.”
Allaire: "Thursday, 23d. All the army, except the Seventy-first regiment, and greatest part of the baggage, crossed the river in boats and flats, the bridge being destroyed. Col. Tarleton came up with a party of Rebel militia dragoons, soon after crossing the river at Gov. Bee's plantation. He killed ten, and took four prisoners. Gov. Bee was formerly Lieut. Gov. under His Majesty, is now one of the members of Congress, and Lieut. Gov. of South Carolina."
William Dobein James: "On the 23d, he [Tarleton] put to flight another party at Ponpon, killed three, wounded one, and took four prisoners."
Conclusion: British Victory

March 25, 1780 at Savannah, Georgia

On March 25, a detachment of Delancey's 1st Battalion New York Volunteers rode out of Savannah and was ambushed and attacked by a a force of (reportedly) 300 whigs militia, commanded by Col. Andrew Pickens, which had maneuvered near to Savannah. The King's Rangers were sent to rescue the Volunteers, which they did. They quickly retreated back to their lines. Before leaving, the militia plundered and burned Royal Governor Wright's rice plantations. A detachment of engaged. The British lost 3 killed and 5 wounded. American losses are not known.
Conclusion: American Victory

March 25, 1780 at Dorchester Road, South Carolina

Hessian Capt. Johann Ewald ordered to fire on the flanks of Patriot cavalry approaching their post, and his men managed to only hit one man, a sergeant of the 3rd Regiment of Continental Light Dragoons. The sergeant was so far in front of the rest that he was an easy target, getting hit in the stomach.

Capt. Ewald asked the dying sergeant why he had acted so rashly and he replied: "Sir, Colonel Washington promised me that I would become an officer right away if I could discover whether the Jaegers were supported by infantry and had cannon with them, because if not, he would try to harass the Jaegers."

The British surgeon told the sergeant that his wound was mortal. The sergeant replied, "Well then, I die for my country and for its just cause." Capt. Ewald gave the dying man a glass of wine, "which he drank with relish, and then died."
Conclusion: British Victory

March 27, 1780 at Rantowles Bridge, South Carolina

Three hundred American cavalry, consisting of Lt. Col. William Washington's 3rd Continental Light Dragoons, the 1st Continental Light Dragoons under Lt. Col. Anthony White, Pulaski's Legion Cavalry under Major Pierre-François Vernier, and probably as well Col. Daniel Horry’s South Carolina Light Horse Regiment, conducted a twelve-mile ride towards the British lines.

Once there, these Patriots defeated the British Legion and the 17th Light Dragoons, with 200 to 300 men, in a skirmish in which the Americans captured Loyalist Lt. Col. John Hamilton of the Royal North Carolina Regiment along with six other prisoners. As they were returning back to Bacon's Bridge, Lt. Col. Washington learned that a British force, commanded by Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton, was approaching their rear. The Patriots turned around and charged the British. As the fighting started, Lt. Col. Tarleton realized that this would become a disaster for the British. He ordered his troops to retreat back across the causeway, but he lost eight dragoons captured.
Conclusion: American Victory

March 26, 1780 at Charleston County, South Carolina

On March 27, at Rantowle's Bridge (also Rantol's Bridge and Rutledge's Plantation) 300 American cavalry, consisting of Lieut. Col. William Washington's 3rd Continental Light Dragoons, the 1st Continental Light Dragoons, under Lieut. Col. Anthony White, Pulaski's Legion cavalry under Major Pierre-François Vernier, and probably as well Col. Peter Horry's South Carolina light horse, conducted a 12-mile ride towards the British lines. Once there, defeated the British Legion and 17th Light Dragoons, with 200 to 300, in a skirmish in which the Americans captured Lieut. Col. John Hamilton of the Royal North Carolina Regiment along with six other prisoners.

As they were returning back to Bacon's Bridge, Washington learned that a British force, commanded by Col. Banastre Tarleton, was approaching their rear. The Patriots turned around and charged the British. As the fighting started, Tarleton realized that this would become a disaster for the British. He ordered his troops to retreat back across the causeway.

Tarleton:This affair [at Bee's Plantation] was nearly counterbalanced in the neighbourhood of Rantol's bridge, where a body of the continental cavalry, consisting of Washington's and Bland's light horse, and Pulaski's hussars, carried off Lieutenant-colonel Hamilton, of the North-Carolina provincial regiment, with some other prisoners; and owing to the imprudence of the officer who commanded the advance guard of the British dragoons, sent in pursuit, was on the point of gaining advantage over that corps.”

Allaire: "Monday, 27th. Two companies of Light Infantry, American Volunteers, and one company of Dragoons, crossed at Rantowle's in scows; the rest of the army crossed yesterday. Col. Hamilton, of the North Carolinians, and Dr. Smith, of the Hospital, proceeding about a mile in front of the army, to Gov. Rutledge's house, were immediately surrounded by three hundred Continental Light Horse, and they consequently made prisoners. The British Dragoons fell in with them soon after, and had a skirmish; the Rebels soon gave way, and showed them the road, as is customary for them to do. Qr. Master Sergeant Mcintosh, of the Georgia Dragoons, badly wounded in the face by a broadsword. Several Dragoons of the Legion were wounded. How many of the Rebels got hurt we can't learn; but they did not keep up the combat long enough for many to receive damage. This morning, Capt. Saunders, that came in with the flag on the 24th, was sent out; his attendant, Capt. Wilkinson, not being mentioned in the body of the flag, is detained as a prisoner of war. We took up our ground on Gov. Rutledge's plantation, about one mile from his house, where we remained all night."

William Dobein James:On the 27th, near Rantowle's bridge, he [Tarleton] had a rencounter with Col. Washington, at the head of his legion of 300 men; Tarleton was worsted in this affair, and lost seven men, prisoners."
Conclusion: American Victory

March 28, 1780 at Sunbury, Georgia

On March 28, a party of Georgia militia routed some Loyalists and Indians.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: unknown; British: 10k

March 29-30, 1780 at Charleston County, South Carolina

On March 29-30, the British force, commanded by Lt. Gen. Charles Cornwallis, was approaching Gibbes Plantation. A combination of several Patriot units were put together, commanded by Lt. Col. John Laurens, to stop the British advance. He posted his troops in an advanced redoubt on the King Street Road, about a mile from Charlestown. Another 1 1/2 miles from them, he placed a detachment of riflemen who set up an ambush in a wooded area along the road.

Around 12:00 P.M., the Patriots fired on the British as they entered the ambush area. Quickly, the Patriots realized that they were outnumbered and began a withdrawal. The running battle continued until the Patriots reached the redoubt and took cover inside. Laurens was ordered to fall back to the American lines, with the British occupying the abandoned positions. Laurens decided to attack the abandoned positions, forcing the British back. The British counterattacked, forcing the Americans to fall back again.

De Brahm: [Entry for the 30th] "The advanced guard of the enemy came within two miles of Charlestown, when a party of two hundred men, under Colonel John Laurens and a little while after two field-pieces), went out against them, who, after a skirmish of some hours, returned towards sun-set. The fortifications of Charlestown were, even at this time, very incomplete. All the negroes in town were impressed, who, together with the parties detailed from the garrison, were henceforth employed upon the works."

Letter from South Carolina printed in the Pennsylvania Packet, April 25:March 30.—Yesterday, a large body of British grenadiers and infantry crossed the Ashley River, and to-day they appeared before the American line, where they are now camped. As the enemy approached, Colonel John Laurens, with a small party, had a brush with the advance body, in which Captain Bowman of the North Carolina forces, fell, much lamented; Major Herne [Edmund Hyrne] and two privates were wounded. The enemies loss is reported to be from twelve to sixteen killed. A French gentlemen, who was a volunteer in the action, says he counted eight and a Highland deserter says Col. St. Clair was mortally wounded.”
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: 1k, 8w; British: 9k, 11w, 5m

April of 1780

April 1, 1780 at South Carolina coast, South Carolina (Fair American vs. Elphinstone and Arbuthnot)

On April 1, the South Carolina State Navy ship Fair American, commanded by Capt. Charles Morgan, teamed up with the privateer Argo and was able to capture the two privateer brigs, Elphinstone and Arbuthnot. The Loyalist ships were from New York and had been bound for St. Kitts.
Conclusion: American Victory

April 2, 1780 at Harpersfield, New York

A detachment of Rebel militia under the command of Captain Alexander Harper traveled from Schoharie to Harpersfield (some thirty miles). Their purpose was to gather sap and produce maple syrup/sugar to supplement the meager food supplies at the Schoharie forts. While gathering the sap, the men were surprised by a war party led by the Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant. Chief Joseph Brant and a group of Indians and Tories attacked the settlement of Harpersfield. Harpersfield was an exposed settlement 20 miles south of Cherry valley and 15 miles southwest of Lower Fort of Schoharie Valley. Brant and his group destroyed the settlement. Most of the inhabitants had left.Three of the Rebels were killed and eleven taken prisoner including Capt. Harper.

One of the prisoners, Freegift Patchin, later related the story of their capture and travails as prisoners. He mentioned one Loyalist, a Mr. Beacraft, who threatened to kill them right after their capture. Patchin also remembered a confrontation between Capt. Harper and Joseph Brant. Brant was about to tomahawk Harper when, instead, he decided to question Harper about the Schoharie forts. Harper assumed Brant was on his way to attack the settlements and forts on the Schoharie Kill (Creek). When Brant asked him if there were Continental soldiers around, Harper replied that three hundred Continentals had just arrived to defend the forts. It was a lie, but Brant believed Harper and the war party with their prisoners departed for Fort Niagara.
Had Harper not been able to convince Brant to not attack Schoharie, the number of prisoners heading for Fort Niagara would have been much greater than eleven.
Conclusion: British Victory

April 5, 1780 at Ogeechee River, Georgia

On April 5, Col. Andrew Pickens commanded his militia and raided the rice plantations of Royal Governor Wright. Capt. Thomas Conkling was ordered to take a reinforced company of DeLancey's Brigade, find the militia, and engage them. A group of slaves and their overseers also joined up with the British in the pursuit. The Patriots and British finally engaged each other, with the Patriots winning the skirmish.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: unknown; British: 3k, 5w

April 8, 1780 at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina

A British squadron detachment, consisting of Roebuck, Richmond, Romulus, Blonde, Virginia, Raleigh, Sandwich (armed ship) and Renown, passed the heavy guns of Fort Moultrie, commanded by Brevet Brig. Gen. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, with the loss of only 27 men, and loss of Arteus ,an ordnance ship, which went aground and was burned. Richmond's foretop mast was shot away. The flotilla then anchored off Fort Johnson, the move having marked a major breach in the American defenses.

Allaire: "Saturday, 8th. But little firing from the Rebels. Rainy, disagreeable morning. The rebels were reinforced with thirteen hundred men last night, commanded by a Gen. Scott. They fired a feu de joie, and rang all the bells in town on the occasion. About four o'clock this afternoon the fleet hove in sight, coming up under full sail with a fresh breeze at south west, and passed Fort Moultrie -- the Rebel fort that they boasted of on Sullivan's Island, which no fleet could ever pass. They were but a few minutes passing. What damage is sustained we have not yet learned. The Richmond lost her fore top-mast; a cutter lay opposite the fort all the time the fleet was passing, with a flay hoisted to point out the channel. A heavy cannonade from the Rebels' batteries, which the shipping returned as they passed with a spirit becoming Britons."

De Brahm: "Last night the [British] enemy commenced a battery of six pieces. All our workmen employed making traverses. A quarter of an hour before sun-set, the English fleet passed Fort Moultrie, under a heavy fire on both sides, and anchored in a line near Fort Johnson. Nobody wounded or killed in Fort Moultrie. The fleet consisted of the following vessels: -- One of 50 guns, two of 40, four frigates, two vessels armed en flute, and two other smaller ones; one of these armed en flute grounded on a band called "The Green."

William Dobein James: "On the 7th, twelve sail of the enemy's ships passed Fort Moultrie, under a heavy fire. The garrison had been assiduous in preparing for defence; the old works were strengthened, and lines and redoubts were extended from Ashley to Cooper river. A strong abbatis was made in front, and a deep, wet ditch was opened from the marsh on one side, to that on the other, and the lines were so constructed as to rake it."
Conclusion: American Victory

April 12, 1780 at Sullivan's Island, South Carolina

Three British sloops fired on Fort Moultrie before they entered into the Ashley River.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

April 14, 1780 at Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina

Patriot Schooner Polly captured by Virginia Royalist sloop Lilly.
Conclusion: British Victory

April 15, 1780 at New Bridge, New Jersey

An American outpost, under Lt. Samuel Bryson, is overrun at New Bridge.
Conclusion: British Victory

April 16, 1780 at Paramus, New Jersey

A detachment of the 3rd Pennsylvania Regiment, under Maj. Thomas L. Byles, is captured by 300 Hessians, under Col. Johann Du Puy, at Paramus. American losses are 4 killed, 6 wounded, and 40 captured.
Conclusion: British Victory

April 20, 1780 at Charlestown Shore Batteries, South Carolina

Patriot shore batteries opened fire on three British ships that moved to a position near Fort Johnson.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

April 20, 1780 at Wando River, South Carolina

Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton captured nine Patriot sloops and twenty cannons.
Conclusion: British Victory

April 23, 1780 at Mt. Pleasant Shore Battery, South Carolina

Patriot shore battery on Mt. Pleasant exchanged fire with HMS Sandwich. This drove away the ship.
Conclusion: American Victory

April 25, 1780 at Sullivan's Island, South Carolina

The British ship HMS Germain fired on Fort Moultrie as it entered into Charlestown harbor.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

April 24, 1780 at Mount Pleasant, South Carolina

Shore battery exchanged fire with HMS Sandwich. This drove away the ship.
Conclusion: American Victory

April 24, 1780 at Charlestown, South Carolina

Patriot troops attack a British trench work driving off the work party and took several prisoners.
Conclusion: American Victory

May of 1780

May ??, 1780 at Mobley's Meetinghouse, South Carolina

Patriot militia Capt. John McClure joined forces with Col. Richard Winn and Lt. Col. William Bratton and they attacked Col. Charles Coleman's Loyalists in a strong block house adjacent to the church. They were also able to recover much plunder plus impressed horses and servants.
Conclusion: American Victory

May ??, 1780 at Morris Ford Earthworks, South Carolina

When Charlestown fell into the hands of the British, under the command of General Sir Henry Clinton and Vice-Admiral Mariot Arbuthnot, Captain John Mumford of the Colleton County Regiment of Militia, in attempting to make his way to the Patriot Army, was attacked at Morris’s Ford, Salkehatchie, by old Ben John and his gang of Loyalists.

In this encounter the poor fellow lost his life, and a truer Patriot and braver soldier never fell. He now sleeps at the foot of a large pine, on the left hand side of the main road to Barnwell Court House, a few rods south of the bridge, just at turn of the road from which you can see the bridge.
Conclusion: British Victory

May 2, 1780 at Haddrell's Point, South Carolina

On May 2, Maj. Patrick Ferguson and 60 American Volunteers marched to Haddrell's Point to attack the small fort that stood on a causeway that led to Fort Moultrie. The fort was about 150 yards from the mainland and was defended by Capt. John Williams and 20 soldiers of the 1st South Carolina Regiment. Ferguson divided his force into two 30-man elements. One group would attack from the right and the other group would attack from the center. The British took the fort with the cannons from Fort Moultrie firing on them until dark. The British soon fortified the fort for a possible attack.

Allaire: "Tuesday, 2nd. Began to fortify Lempriere's Point. Maj. Ferguson, with a detachment of American Volunteers, marched down to Mount Pleasant, stormed and took possession of a little redoubt, located partly on the main, and partly on the bridge that leads to Fort Moultrie. This cuts off the communication from Sullivan's Island, and keeps them on their proper allowance. The Rebels ran off from the redoubt, though it was very strongly situated, after they fired about a dozen shot. "
Conclusion: British Victory

May 6, 1780 at Moncks Corner, South Carolina

Patriot cavalry under the command of Lt. Col. Anthony Walton White (1st Continental Light Dragoons) surprised and captured a detachment of British regulars that were on a foraging detail.

The patriots then headed toward Lenuds Ferry with their prisoners.
Conclusion: American Victory

May 6, 1780 at Ball's Plantation, South Carolina

According to this source, this engagement happened on May 6th at Elias Ball, Sr.'s plantation at Wambaw. At about 9 o'clock a.m., Capt. Baylor Hill and his troop found the British detachment at Ball's Plantation, and only one Redcoat fired before the remainder quickly surrendered. Capt. Baylor Hill had to restrain his men from hacking the British to death because of their recent encounter with Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton at Moncks Corner. They were marched to Lenud's Ferry where they were to meet up with the remainder of their regiment under the command of Lt. Col. Anthony Walton White.
Conclusion: American Victory

May 7, 1780 at Fort Moultrie, South Carolina

On May 7, during the Charleston Expedition of Gen. Henry Clinton, Capt. Charles Hudson, from the HMS Richmond, and 500 Royal Marines receives surrender of Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island, and its 216 man garrison, from Lieut. Col. William Scott, after threatening to storm it. Most of the fort's garrison had been evacuated earlier before the British arrived.

Fort Moultrie had played a key role in the repulse of Clinton and Sir Peter Parker's expedition to take Charleston in 1776. Hudson took 117 Continentals and 100 militia prisoner, plus 9 twenty-four-pounders, 7 eighteen-pounders, 10 twelve-pounders, 9 nine-pounders, 2 six-pounders, 4 four-pounders, 4 ten-inch mortars, and a large quantity of artillery ammunition and equipment.

Tarleton:This success [at Lenud's Ferry] was closely followed by the reduction of fort Moultrie. The admiral having taken the fort at Mount Pleasant, acquired from it, and the information of deserters, a full knowledge of the state of the garrison and defences of fort Moultrie, on Sullivan's island. In pursuance of this intelligence, and wishing not to weaken the operations of the army, which became every day more critical, he landed a body of seamen and marines, under the command of Captain Hudson, to attempt the fort by storm, on the west and north-west faces, whilst the ships of the squadron battered it in front. The garrison, consisting of continentals and militia, to the amount of [two hundred men, seeing the imminent danger to which they were exposed, and sensible of the impossibility of relief, accepted of the terms offered by a summons on the 7th of May; and by capitulation, surrendered themselves prisoners of war.”

Allaire. "Sunday, 7th. Orders to get ready to march with two days' provision, at a minute's notice. Maj. Ferguson had obtained permission to attack Fort Moultrie. He rode forward with four dragoons to reconnoitre. We were to remain at our post till we got orders for marching. The first news we heard was the fort was in possession of the British; the Rebels had surrendered themselves prisoners of war. Capitulation was as follows: Capt. Hudson of the Navy summoned the fort on Friday, and received for answer: " Tol, lol, de rol, lol: Fort Moultrie will be defended to the last extremity." On Saturday he sent another flag, and demanded a surrender, acquainting Col. Scott that the Lieutenant with the flag would wait a quarter of an hour for an answer. If the fort was not given up, he would immediately storm it, and put all the garrison to the sword.

At this, Col. Scott changed the tune of his song, begging that there might be a cessation of arms, that the fort would be given up on the following conditions: that the officers both Continental and militia, should march out with the honors of war, and be allowed to wear their side arms; the officers and soldiers of. the militia have paroles to go to their respective homes, and remain peaceably till exchanged; and the continental soldiers to be treated tenderly. Granted by Capt. Hudson. About eight o'clock Sunday morning, Colonel Scott with his men, about one hundred and twenty, marched out of the fort, piled their arms, Capt. Hudson marched in, took possession of Fort Moultrie, the key to Charleston harbor; which puts it in our power to keep out any forcing enemy that would wish to give the Rebels any assistance.

Taken in the fort, fifty barrels of powder, forty-four pieces of cannon, one brass ten inch mortar, three thousand cannon cartridges, five hundred ten inch shells, forty thousand musket cartridges, three month's salt provision, a lot of rice, forty head black cattle, sixty sheep, twenty goats, forty fat hogs, six wagons, two stand of colors, an amazing quantity of lunt [match-cord for firing cannon]; and, in short, so many other articles which are necessary in a fort that it would take me a week to set them down."
De Brahm: "This morning at eight o'clock Fort Moultrie capitulated. A sixty-gun ship joined the English Fleet."
Conclusion: British Victory

May 22, 1780 at Caughnawaga, New York

On May 22, Chief Joseph Brant and a group of his Indians made a surprise attack the settlement of Caughnawaga. Caughnawaga was located on the Mohawk River. Brant burned the settlement to the ground. Sir John Johnson had joined up with Brant before the Indian group left for Johnstown.
Conclusion: British Victory

May 29, 1780 at Winnsboro, South Carolina

On May 29, a Loyalist group moved on Winnsboro for an attack on the patriot irregulars that was located there. The patriots defeated and dispersed the Loyalist force. This American victory marked the beginning of an effective patriot resurgence in the Carolinas.
Conclusion: American Victory

May 31, 1780 at Beckhamville, South Carolina

After Buford's Defeat by Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton on May 29, 1780 at the Waxhaws, many Patriots in the neighboring countryside were anxious to strike a blow in revenge. On the western side of the Catawba River, Capt. John McClure collected a party of thirty-two (32) volunteers and on May 31st attacked a group of Loyalists gathering to take British protection at Alexander's Old Field, in present Chester County.

Although the Loyalists, led by a Colonel Houseman, numbered about two hundred, they were defeated and dispersed by the small Patriot force. This was the first Patriot victory after the fall of Charlestown, and the beginning of a great wave of backcountry resistance to the British and their Loyalist allies. The site of this battle was at present-day Beckhamville, a short distance west of Great Falls.
Conclusion: American Victory

June of 1780

June ??, 1780 at Bullock's Fork, South Carolina

To counter the rising Patriot fever, the British took to the backcountry and started raising their own Loyalist militias. In the Ninety-Six District a new regiment was raised and given to Major Daniel Plummer. Alexander Chesney had been a Patriot in the SC 6th Regiment, but after the fall of Charleston he took the oath of allegiance to "king and crown," and became a lieutenant and later a captain in this regiment. Lt. Chesney commanded a small force of men who skirmished with some Patriots at Bullock's Creek.

The Patriots, led by Col. Thomas Brandon, were attempting to cross the ford at Bullock's Fork and Capt. Reed fell behind the others. He was killed by the Loyalists. His mother, having found out who the murderers were, followed Col. Brandon to North Carolina and implored him to avenge the death of her son.
Conclusion: British Victory

June 1, 1780 at Bermuda

A bloody, drawn battle is waged north of Bermuda between the 28-gun frigate USS Trumbull, under Capt. James Nicholson, and the 32-gun British privateer Watt, under Capt. John Coulhard. In one of the toughest fights of the war, Trumbull batters the British hull with several broadsides while Watt concentrates on the American masts and rigging.

The combat ceases after several hours and both vessels limp home to safety. The Americans lose 17 killed and 31 wounded to a British total of 13 killed and 79 wounded.
Conclusion: Draw

June 7-23, 1780 at Elizabethtown, New Jersey

The news of the surrender of Charleston reached New York at near the close of May. This intelligence, and the assurance of Tories from New Jersey that the people there were wearied with the struggle and were disposed to submit, seemed to present a favorable opportunity for making a raid into that State by British troops, and setting up the royal standard there.

At the beginning of June, Gen. ?? Maxwell, with his New Jersey brigade, was at Connecticut Farms (now the village of Union), a hamlet a few miles from Elizabethtown; and 300 New Jersey militia under Col. ?? Dayton occupied the latter place.

On June 6, Knyphausen sent Gen. ?? Mathews, with about 5,000 troops. They passed over from Staten Island to Elizabethtown Point, and the next day took possession of Elizabethtown. The militia there retired before the superior force, when the invaders pressed on the Connecticut Farms, greatly annoyed on their way by the rising militia who hung upon their flanks. At the Farms the British murdered the wife of the Rev. James Caldwell, a very active patriot, who was then in Washington's army. Mrs. Caldwell did not fly, with her neighbors, on the approach of the enemy, but remained, trusting in Providence for protection.

When the invaders entered the hamlet, she retired to an inner room with her children, one of them a suckling. A British soldier came through a yard to an open window of the room, and shot her as she sat on the edge of the bed. Two bullets pierced her, and she fell dead to the floor, with her infant in her arms. The babe was unhurt. The nurse snatched it up and ran out of the house, which was on fire. The church and every building of the hamlet became a victim to the flames. There was barely time to drag the body of Mrs. Caldwell out of the burning building into the street, where it lay exposed several hours, until permission was given to her friends to bury the remains.

As the British pushed on toward Springfield, they were met by Maxwell's troops, and after a brief skirmish, and hearing that forces were coming down from Morristown, they retreated to the coast, where they remained about 2 weeks. Meanwhile Clinton had arrived from Charleston. He sent reinforcements to Mathews, and after making a feint upon the Hudson Highlands, he and Knyphausen crossed over and joined the troops at Elizabethtown Point. The feint deceived Washington, who left the command of a considerable force of Continental troops at the Short Hills, between Springfield and Morristown, with Greene, while he moved with another force in the direction of the Hudson.
Conclusion: British Victory

June 7, 1780 at Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

The Patriot ship Adventure was bound from St. Croix with a cargo of rum, sugar, and fruit, and she had been at sea for seventeen days. Forty leagues (120 statute miles) east of Cape Hatteras, she was spotted by two privateers from Bermuda, the brig Hammond and the sloop Randall.

Although a merchant ship, the Adventure put up a strong fight. For three hours, the three ships maneuvered around each other, most of the time within pistol shot. After suffering severe damage, the Hammond struck her colors, indicating surrender. However, the Adventure could not gain possession due to her own sails and rigging being disabled during the prolonged fight.

The Hammond was able to escape when the Randall towed her off. The Adventure did not have a single man hurt in the engagement.

On her way to the James River, Virginia, the brig General Wayne and the schooner Grand Tyger joined the Adventure. They saw 11 privateers in the distance, waiting for easy prey, but the eleven left the small Patriot convoy alone.
Conclusion: American Victory

June 8, 1780 at ??, South Carolina

After Buford's defeat by Tarleton on May 29, 1780, in the Waxhaws, many Patriots in the neighboring countryside were anxious to strike a blow in revenge. On the western side of the Catawba River, Captain .John McClure collected a party of thirty-two volunteers and on June 8 attacked a group of Loyalists gathering to take British protection at Alexander's Old Fields, in present Chester County. Although the Loyalists, led by a Colonel Housman, numbered about two hundred, they were defeated and dispersed by the small Patriot force.' This was the first Patriot victory after the fall of Charleston, and the beginning of a great wave of back country resistance to the British and their Tory allies. The site of this battle was at present Beckhamville, a short distance west of Great Falls.
Conclusion: American Victory

June 11, 1780 at Gibson's Meeting House, South Carolina

The Loyalists who had fled from Beckhamville ten days before were now under the command of Col. Charles Coleman and they encountered Capt. John Hampton (of Col. Daniel Horry's SC Light Dragoons, which was recently disbanded) and captured him as well as Capt. Henry Hampton (recently released from the SC 6th Regiment when it disbanded in February of 1780) and thirty slaves, two or three wagons, and thirty horses. The two ex-Patriot captains were sent to Camden.

The New Acquisition District Regiment of Militia met at Bullock's Creek Presbyterian Church to talk about what to do about the approaching British forces after the fall of Charlestown less than a month earlier. They learned that SC Brigadier Geneneral Andrew Williamson had surrendered, taken British protection, and had given his parole. Col. Samuel Watson and Lt. Col. William Bratton resigned their commands and said that further resistance was useless, and advised their men "to do the best they could for themselves."

Capt. Richard Winn had been in the SC 3rd Regiment of Rangers and had not given his parole. Somehow, he learned that a group of Loyalists were going to meet at Gibson's Meeting House. Since the New Acquisition District Regiment of Militia had broken up, he was unable to get any men to join him in putting down the Loyalists, and he called upon Lt. Col. William Bratton to help him raise some men for an attack. Capt. John McClure joined them.

James Collins described the militiamen riding out as "men acting entirely on our own footing, without the promise or expectation of any pay. There was nothing furnished us from the public; we furnished our own clothes, composed of coarse materials and all home-spun; our over dress was a hunting shirt, of what was called linsey woolsey, well belted around us. We furnished our own horses, saddles, bridles, guns, swords, butcher knives, and our own spurs." He continued, "We carried no camp equipage, no cooking utensils, nor any thing to encumber us; we depended on what chance or kind providence might cast in our way."

Lt. Col. William Bratton, Capt. Richard Winn, and Capt. John McClure rode out to put these Loyalists out of commission. When they arrived at the Loyalist's location Lt. Col. Bratton sent out a reconnaissance patrol, who learned that the Loyalists were in a large log building with three guards posted outside. As soon as the sun rose, the Patriots moved slowly through the woods, then "formed into regular order." Before they could get into final attack position the sentries fired on them, but the Patriots were too close to be stopped.

They rushed and fired. Some Loyalists came out of the log building, but were cut down. Others jumped out of the windows and left their weapons, running some distance on all fours before they could recover their legs. The Patriots lost no men and captured a large stand of guns that were stacked in the yard, along with a about 30 prisoners. The Loyalists lost three officers killed, five other men killed, and 16 badly wounded. The prisoners were sent to Hillsborough, NC.

The success at Beckhamville and at Gibson's Meeting House doubled the Patriot's ranks. When local Loyalists learned that Richard Winn had masterminded the raid on Gibson's Meeting House, they "had all his houses burnt to the ground, and every negro plundered, together with every property he possessed in the world. His wife was plundered of her clothes, and she was drove off with two infant children." Winn wrote, "It is no more than I expected."
Conclusion: American Victory

June 11, 1780 at Fishing Creek Church, South Carolina

On June 10, Col. Francis, Lord Rawdon arrived in the Waxhaws and tried to put down the rising Patriot attacks. He told all the inhabitants to return to their farms and take British protection. Patriot Brigadier General Andrew Williamson, recently paroled and under British protection, ordered the Upper Ninety-Six District Regiment to disband. When Col. Andrew Pickens and Col. John Thomas, Sr. took the British parole, Col. Thomas's son, John Thomas, Jr. moved his Patriot Militia and vowed to continue fighting.

Meanwhile, Capt. Christian Huck rode to the Fishing Creek Church on a Sunday expecting to find the local militia, but they had already left. Capt. Huck's men shot and killed William Strong as he walked along the road carrying a bible. Then, they raided the home of Janet Strong and wounded another man - then continued on to the church.

Next, they went to Rev. John Simpson's (recently elected as a Captain in the local Patriot Militia) house where they found Mrs. Simpson hiding in the woods with her four children. Capt. Huck's men ransacked the home then torched it.
Conclusion: British Victory

June 12, 1780 at Rocky Creek Settlement, South Carolina

Rev. William Martin heard Col. Francis, Lord Rawdon's proclamation demanding locals to take British protection, but he was outraged by the massacre at Waxhaws by Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton. He preached a sermon to the Covenanter Church on Rocky Creek telling his congregation that they needed to ignore the proclamation and take up arms against the British.

Lt. Col. George Turnbull of the NY Volunteers (Provincials) learned of this sermon and sent a force of dragoons to disperse the congregation that was organizing under Capt. Benjamin Land (Turkey Creek Regiment) - this they did, along with killing Capt. Land. Two miles away, the dragoons attacked another gathering at a local blacksmith shop, killing one. They then rode to the home of Rev. Martin, arrested him, and took him to the Rocky Mount jail.
Conclusion: British Victory

June 18, 1780 in York County, South Carolina

The Iron works was established by Col. William Hill and Isaac Hayne in the South Carolina backcountry in anticipation of the war.

On June 16, a group of British, commanded by Capt. Christian Huck, were ordered to destroy Hill's Iron Works. The Iron Works consisted of a store, furnace and mills. The Iron Works were being guarded by about 50 militiamen.

On June 18, 2 men warned the militia that a force of 200-300 British dragoons were on their way to the Iron Works. The British arrived undetected and surprised the militiamen when they opened fire on them. The militia thought that these British were the advanced guard of the larger force that they had been warned about. After a brief skirmish, the militia fled. Captain Huck burned Hill's Ironworks, confiscating 90 slave laborers.
Conclusion: British Victory. Casualties: American: 7k, 4c; British: unkmown

June 20, 1780 at Ramseur's Mill, North Carolina

Information coming soon
Conclusion: American Victory

July of 1780

July 1, 1780 at Georgetown, South Carolina

On July 1, Vice-Admiral Mariot Arbuthnot with Capt. John Plumer Ardesoif seized ships in Georgetown harbor and sent sailors upriver in armed barges to plunder Patriot plantations. These British officers then read General Sir Henry Clinton's recent two proclamations to the residents of Georgetown informing them that they now must take up arms against the Patriot rebels.

Major John James, the recognized leader of the Kingstree Regiment now that Col. Archibald McDonald was on parole after being captured at the fall of Charlestown, decided to ride down to Georgetown and find out from the source if his men were truly expected to take up arms against their fellow Patriots. Major James rode into Georgetown, wearing the plain garb of a small-time country planter, and he was presented to Capt. John Ardesoif at his headquarters, not far from his nearby ship.

Capt. Ardesoif, surprised that such an emissary might come to visit him, answered, "the submission must be unconditional." To Major James's next question as to whether the local inhabitants would not be allowed to stay at home, upon their plantations, in peace and quiet... Capt. Ardesoif replied, "Although you have rebelled against his majesty, he offers you a free pardon, of which you are undeserving, for you ought all to be hanged, but as he offers you a free pardon, you must take up arms in support of the cause."

Major John James stated that the people he represented would not submit to such terms, and Capt. Ardesoif responded, "You damned rebel. If you speak in such language I will immediately order you to be hanged up to the yard arm..." Since Capt. Ardesoif was getting quite angry and he wore a sword, Major James quickly grabbed a chair and brandished it in the face of the angry British officer, then quickly retreated out the back door, mounted his nearby horse, and made his escape into the country.

Major James Wemyss, with the 63rd Regiment of Foot, arrived on July 11th and thus began the British occupation of Georgetown.
Conclusion: British Victory

July 12, 1780 at Cedar Springs, South Carolina

Thomas's mother, Jane, was at Ninety-Six visiting her other son and her husband, both of whom were imprisoned there. While there, she overheard some of the Loyalist womenfolk talking of Major Patrick Ferguson's plans for his subordinates to attack her son's camp at Cedar Springs.

She rode sixty miles on the night of July 11 to tell her son, John Thomas, Jr., that there would be an attack on his position soon.

Col. Thomas left his campfires burning the next night and moved his men to the rear of the camp. When the Loyalists arrived they found the fires still burning, and they immediately charged into the camp.

The Spartans fired a concentrated volley into their ranks, killing several, and scattering the rest who fled to Gowen's Fort.

On July 13, Col. John Thomas was commanding the Spartan regiment of the South Carolina Patriot militia. He was warned by his mother that the Loyalists planned to attack his camp.

When the attack began at Cedar Springs, the Loyalists ran into a prepared ambush and were beaten back by the militia. The Loyalists quickly retreated back to friendly territory.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 12, 1780 at Brandon's Camp, South Carolina

Col. Thomas Brandon, commander of the 2nd Spartan Regiment of Militia, established his camp near Fair Forest Creek to use it as a place to recruit new militiamen, as a place to launch patrols to keep the Loyalists in check, and as a place to keep Loyalist prisoners. One night, a prisoner, Adam Steedham, escaped and made his way to Capt. William Cunningham, a noted Loyalist.

Col. Brandon had about 10-12 men in camp making breakfast that morning when Capt. Cunningham and his Loyalist cavalry rushed in, completely routing them. Col. Brandon had situated his men beside a deep ravine, and many were able to get away by jumping into it, and Capt. Cunningham's horses could not jump it. Five of Col. Brandon's men were killed.
Conclusion: British Victory

July 12, 1780 at Stallion's Plantation, South Carolina

Col. Thomas Brandon regrouped his men of the 2nd Spartan Regiment of Militia after their defeat at Brandon’s Camp. He then led his men in a surprise attack on the same Loyalist militia that had engaged them at Brandon’s Camp and defeated them in turn. Brandon took most of his 50 men around the rear of Mr. Stallion's (or Stalling's) home and left Lt. Col. Andrew Love with 16 men out front.

Mrs. Stallions was Lt. Col. Love's sister and she ran out to beg her brother not to attack. When he refused, she returned to the house and as she entered the front door a stray bullet came in from the rear and killed her.

The Loyalists held out for a short time, then raised a white flag on the barrel of a rifle. Since this didn't look too peaceful to the Patriots a bullet was put through the rifleman's arm. The flag disappeared and was quickly raised again, now on a musket ramrod - this time the offer for a truce was accepted. Col. Brandon had one man wounded - Thomas Kennedy.
Conclusion: British Victory

July 13, 1780 at Gowen's Old Fort, South Carolina

On July 13 , Col. John Jones was leading a force of Georgia Patriot militia. They were going to join Col. Charles McDowell in North carolina. On the way, the militia surrounded and attacked a Loyalist camp at Gowen's Old Fort. The Loyalists were pursuing Col. John Thomas's militia force. The Loyalists were forced to surrender without any serious resistance.
Conclusion: American Victory.

July 15, 1780 at Earle's Ford, South Carolina

On July 15, Loyalist Col. Zacharias Gibbs learned that there was a Patriot force in the area. He sent a spy to infiltrate the Patriot camp, commanded by Col. Charles McDowell, and gather up as much information as he could. The spy was successful and returned to Gibbs with the information. Capt. James Dunlap and a Loyalist force was sent to attack the Patriot camp.

Early in the morning, Dunlap discovered the camp and began moving across the North Pacolet River to attack. They were spotted by a sentry, who went back to the camp to warn McDowell. The Loyalists charged into the camp, catching some of the Patriots still asleep in their tents. A Patriot counterattack was ordered by McDowell, which managed to drive away the Loyalists.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: 8k, 30w, 1c; British: 2k, 1w

July 15, 1780 at Prince's Fort, South Carolina

On July 15, after the attack on the Patriot camp at Earle's Ford, the Loyalist force, commanded by Capt. James Dunlap, headed back to their base at Prince's Fort. Col. Edward Hampton, and his Patriot militia, was chasing after Dunlap's force. About 5 miles from the fort, Hampton caught up with Dunlap's Loyalists. They were on the Blackstock Road, unaware that the Patriots were behind them. The Patriots opened fire on the Loyalists, killing 5 men instantly. The Loyalists broke ranks and fled to the fort.

Hampton stopped his pursuit about 300 yards from the fort, satisfied with his results from the attack. He returned to Earle's Ford with 35 captured horses and a stack of captured weapons.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: ?; British: 13k, 1c

July 16, 1780 at Fisher Summit, Pennsylvania

On July 16, a British raiding party that also included some Indians managed to surprise a group of Patriot rangers, commanded by Capt. William Phillips. The patriots were soon beaten by the British. Phillips was captured by the raiding party and taken prisoner to Niagra.
Conclusion: British Victory.

July 16, 1780 at McDowells' Camp, South Carolina

NC Loyalists militia, under Capt. James Dunlap, attacked a force of Patriot militia at the camp at night. They killed eight Patriots and wounded thirty before Col. McDowell could rally his men and beat off the assault.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 17, 1780 at Prince's Fort, South Carolina

On July 17, after the attack on the Patriot camp at Earle's Ford, the Loyalist force, commanded by Capt. James Dunlap, headed back to their base at Prince's Fort. Capt. Edward Hampton and his Patriot militia were chasing after Dunlap's force. About five miles from the fort, Hampton caught up with Dunlap's Loyalists. They were on the Blackstock Road, unaware that the Patriots were behind them.

The Patriots opened fire on the Loyalists, killing five men instantly. The Loyalists broke ranks and fled to the fort. Hampton stopped his pursuit about 300 yards from the fort, satisfied with his results from the attack. He returned to Earle's Ford with 35 captured horses and a stock of captured weapons.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 20, 1780 at Lawson's Fork, South Carolina

Draper relates this story of the capture of Captain Patrick Moore, a noted Loyalist. Moore had escaped from the slaughter at Ramsour's Mill on July 20, when his brother, Colonel John Moore, safely returned to Camden. Anxious for the capture of Captain Moore, Major Joseph Dickson and Captain William Johnson were sent out early in July to apprehend this noted Tory leader, and others if they could be found.

On Lawson's Fork of Pacolet River, near the old Iron Works, since Bivingsville, and now known as Glendale, the parties met and a skirmish ensued, in which Captain Johnson and the Tory leader had a personal rencontre. Moore was at length overpowered and captured, but in the desperate contest Johnson received several wounds on his head and on the thumb of his right hand. While bearing his prisoner toward the Whig lines a short distance away, he was rapidly approached by several British troops.

Attempting to fire his loaded musket at his pursuers, it unfortunately missed in consequence of the blood flowing from his wounded thumb and wetting his priming. This misfortune oh his part enabled his prisoner to escape, and, perceiving his own dangerous and defenseless condition, he promptly availed himself of a friendly thicket at his side, eluded his pursuers, and shortly after joined the command.
Conclusion: American Victory.

July 20-21, 1780 at Bull's Ferry, New Jersey

On July 20, Gen. George Washington detached Brig. Gen. Anthony Wayne, with 2 brigades, 4 guns, and a group of dragoons, on a mission to destroy a stockaded British blockhouse that had been recently built at Bull's Ferry. Bull's Ferry was located about 4 miles north of Hoboken. The stockade was garrisoned by 70 Loyalists, commanded by Thomas Ward. The Loyalist were using the stockade as a base for woodcutting and protection against roaming militia.

On July 21, during the morning hours, Waye began to bombard the blockhouse for about an hour. At the same time, the Loyalists were returning fire from inside the blockhouse. The Americans rushed the blockhouse, against the orders of the commanders, through the abatis to the foot of the blockhouse. This is the reason for the high casualty rate for Wayne's force. The Americans tried to force their way inside the building but could not achieve this.
After a failure to capture the blockhouse, Wayne withdrew his force.
Conclusion: British Victory. Casualties: American: 15k, 49w; British: 21k&w

July 20, 1780 at Flat Rock, South Carolina

In 1779, William Richardson Davie was commissioned a Captain in the NC Light Dragoons Regiment and was seriously wounded at the battle of Stono Ferry in June of 1779. He returned home to recover, after which he was then promoted to Major under Col. Robert Irwin and Col. Caleb Phifer in the Mecklenburg County Regiment of Militia.

After the fall of Charlestown, Davie was given command of his own Independent Corps of Light Horse with the mission to harass British communications between their posts at Hanging Rock and Camden. His cavalry was often reinforced by SC Militia under Major Robert Crawford (Turkey Creek Regiment), thirty-five (35) Catawba warriors under their chief General Newriver, and a part of the Mecklenburg County Regiment of Militia (NC) commanded by Lt. Col. John William Hagan.

The British thought that they would be able to forage from the local inhabitants, but the continued attacks denied them that source of provisions. The posts at Hanging Rock and Rocky Mount had to rely on supplies from Camden. Major Davie learned of a convoy coming from Camden and he rode with some of his men to intercept these supplies. He left his camp on the evening of July 20th and rode around the left flank of Hanging Rock and laid an ambush on the Camden Road, about five miles south of Hanging Rock at a location called Flat Rock.

The convoy was "captured with little trouble, the spirits provisions and waggons being destroyed, the escorts and waggoners were mounted on the captured horses, and about dark the party commenced its retreat."
Conclusion: British Victory

July 20, 1780 at Beaver Creek Ford, South Carolina

While returning from his successful raid on the British supply column near Flat Rock, Major William Richardson Davie and his cavalry rode back to their camp at Waxhaw Creek. One of his own men straggled back and Major Davie was worried that he would be captured and inform any British patrols of their location. Major Davie told his guides to take a route back home that was the least traveled.

The moon was full and the Patriots were able to pass by the left flank of Hanging Rock again to reach a plantation on Beaver Creek. At this location, Major Davie sent a Capt. Petit with an advance force to determine if it was safe. Capt. Petit did not see anything suspicious and Major Davie ordered the rest of the men to follow. When the rear of his column entered the lane, Major Davie's advance force "hailed the enemy concealed under a fence and some standing corn; on challenging a second time he was answered by a discharge of Musquetry, which commenced on their right and passed like a running fire towards the rear of the Detachment."

A major in charge of the advance force ordered men to get through the lane, but they charged back against the Loyalists and were hit with a second volley. Once they caught up with the men who made it through the ambush, the whole body filed off to the right and quickly took up a position on a hill overlooking the plantation.

Lt. Col. William Polk's men were guarding the prisoners taken at Flat Rock, and his men had suffered some casualties. Major Davie's troops suffered light casualties - Capt. Petit and two men wounded and a lieutenant killed. The enemy's fire fell primarily on the prisoners, who were confined two upon a horse and mixed with their guards.

Major Davie could see the Loyalists walking about the plantation with lights, and they did not seem alarmed. His own men were close to a panic and he ordered a retreat. They left the mortally wounded prisoners on the hill and then rode off. Their own guides had fled on the first shots, "but a Tory who was taken from his bed and compelled to serve as guide enabled him to pass the enemy's patroles and regain his camp the next day without any further reverse of fortune."
Conclusion: British Victory

July 21, 1780 at Colson, North Carolina

On July 21, Col. William L. Davidson was ordered to take a small force of Patriots to intercept the Loyalists force in the area. They soon learned of a party of Loyalists camped on a farm near Colson's Mill. The mill was located at the river junction of the Rocky and Pee Dee Rivers. it consisted of a mill, a stagecoach relay, and a ferry crossing.

Davidson divided his force so that he could attack from the front and flank. The Loyalists detected the Patriots and opened fire on them. The Patriots charged into the camp, with Davidson becoming wounded in the stomach. After a very short fight, the Loyalists fled to their homes.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: 2w; British: 3k, 5w, 10c

July 25, 1780 at Mars Bluff, South Carolina

On July 25, a flotilla of British flatboats was heading towards Charlestown on the Pee Dee River. The transports contained sick soldiers and was being escorted by some Loyalist militia. The Patriots learned of this British movement and gathered some troops to make an attack. The Patriot militia was assigned to Maj. Tristram Thomas. He picked an ambush site at Hunt's Bluff, a bend in the river. Not having any cannon, the Patriots made some Quaker cannons, and placed them behind a parapet.
When the British approached the "battery," the Patriots rushed out and pretended to load the cannons. Demands were yelled at the flatboats to surrender or be blown apart with the cannons. The Loyalist militia were folled, and they quickly mutinied. They took over the boats, made the sick soldiers their prisoners, and surrendered to Thomas.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: ?; British: 107c

July 30, 1780 at Thickety Fort/Fort Anderson, South Carolina

On July 30, a Patriot force arrived at Fort Anderson, located about 10 miles southeast of Cowpens. Fort Anderson was also known as Thickety Fort. The fort contained a Loyalist garrison inside. The patriots persuaded the garrison to surrender without firing a shot.
Conclusion: American Victory.

July 30, 1780 at Hanging Rock, South Carolina

On July 30, Lt. Col. William Davie and his North Carolina Patriot force ambushed 3 companies of Col. Samuel Bryan's North Carolina Royalists. The ambush was located within sight of the strong British post at Hanging Rock. Most of the Loyalists were killed or wounded.

After capturing all of the weapons and horses of the Loyalists, Davie withdrew with his force. The British garrison at hanging Rock was too startles by the sudden attack to intervene on behalf of the Loyalists.
Conclusion: American Victory.

August of 1780

August 1, 1780 at Green Springs, South Carolina

On August 1, a skirmish occured between a Tory force (210 men), commanded by Maj. Patrick Ferguson, and a patriot force (196 men). In a 15-minute fight, the Tories were driven back. Casualties were heavy on both sides.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 1, 1780 at South Carolina coast, South Carolina

Even though Charlestown had fallen to the British, the South Carolina Navy continued to operate off the coast of the two Carolinas.

On August 1, the American privateers, the General Green and the Holker, and the South Carolina Navy snow Fair American, captured the Queen Charlotte off the coast of South Carolina.

The Queen Charlotte was laden with turtles and fruit and on her way from Providence to New York. She was escorted to Philadelphia on August 2.

Five days later, the Fair American and the Holker captured two schooners laden with tobacco. On board were refugees out of the Chesapeake region of Virginia.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 3, 1780 at Rocky Creek, South Carolina

Major John Carden, with 800 men of the Prince of Wales American Regiment (Provincials) and two field pieces, were on their way from Camden to the first battle at Hanging Rock (too late), when they met some of Col. Thomas Sumter's forces foraging for food around Rocky Creek.

Col. Sumter ordered Col. Richard Winn to take 100 men and delay Major Carden until everyone could safely withdraw. Col. Winn sent Capt. Coleman (GA) and William Stroud ahead, while the rest saddled up. These two men were captured and immediately hanged by the enemy beside the road.

The two sides exchanged long-range fire, but did not get close enough to get fully engaged. Col. Andrew Neel did get too close and was shot in his saddle - he died on the road near the enemy forces. Another of Col. Winn's men was wounded.

Major Carden withdrew back towards Rocky Mount and Col. Winn pursued them at a distance, but broke off as the enemy approached their camp at Rocky Mount. The next day, Lt. Col. James Hawthorn was sent under a flag of truce to bury Col. Andrew Neel. Lt. Col. Hawthorn reported that he thought the enemy had lost 12-14 men killed and/or wounded.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

August 7, 1780 at Kingstree, South Carolina

Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton left Georgetown and first went to Lenud's Ferry then to the Black River and crossed at the Lower Bridge, reaching Kingstree on August 6, 1780. He pitched camp on the parade ground where the county court house now stands. Lt. Col. Tarleton learned that Major John James's battalion (Kingstree Regiment), with Capt. William McCottry's riflemen as advance guards were on their way to greet him.

Lt. Col. Tarleton immediately decamped and headed towards Camden. Capt. McCottry's riflemen arrived a few hours late. On his departure, Lt. Col. Tarleton took several prisoners in Kingstree then burned the mansion home and fourteen buildings at the messauge of Capt. Henry Mouzon. A little further, Lt. Col. Tarleton destroyed the homes of William and Edward Plowden.

When Lt. Col. Tarleton arrived at the village of Salem, he disguised himself as an American officer and went to the home of James Bradley and passed himself off as Lt. Col. William Washington. Lt. Col. Tarleton pursuaded Bradley to lead him accross the swamps of the Black River, then threw off his disguise and made Bradley a prisoner.
Conclusion: British Victory

August 6, 1780 at Hanging Rock, South Carolina

On July 30, while Col. Thomas Sumter was attacking Rocky Mount, Major William Richardson Davie made a spectacular diversionary attack on Hanging Rock, some fifteen miles to the east of Rocky Mount. Major Davie had 40 dragoons and a similar number of mounted riflemen, far too small a force for any serious attack on the 500 or so manning the British outpost.

However, in reconnoitering the enemy's camp, Major Davie discovered that three companies of Loyalist mounted infantry were bivouacked at a house within plain view of the main encampment. No record of their number has been found and a company strength in those days varied widely.

Major Davie's mounted riflemen, who came from the same background as the Loyalists, were dressed roughly the same, so he sent them casually toward the house. They rode unchallenged past the Loyalist sentinels, dismounted in a lane near the buildings, and opened fire.

The Loyalists fled toward the other end of the lane, but Major Davie had sent his dragoons on a circular path through the woods in anticipation. Cut off at both ends, the Loyalists tried the middle, but Major Davie also predicted that move and sent a small number of dragoons to close that escape route.

The Loyalists were cut to pieces within sight of their companions in the main camp. Before relief could be organized, Major Davie's troops remounted and withdrew from the scene. Loyalist casualties are not recorded. Major Davie did not lose a man.

Outnumbered two to one, American Patriots, under the command of Major William Richardson Davie (NC) and Col. Thomas Sumter managed to overrun and almost annihilate a British Provincial regiment and took most of its supplies at the battle of Hanging Rock.

But events leading to the Hanging Rock skirmish actually began on July 30, 1780. That day, Col. Thomas Sumter split his forces into two groups. He led one to Rocky Mount, while Major Davie led his NC Patriots to Hanging Rock as a diversion. Major Davie and his troops were dispatched to raid a British outpost near a spot where Stevens Spring Fish Hatchery is now located south of Heath Springs. With the element of surprise on Davie's side, the raid was quite successful and many arms were captured.

Meanwhile, Col. Thomas Sumter, his South Carolina Militia, and a Catawba Indian party set about a raid at Rocky Mount, south of present-day Great Falls. Col. Sumter's group tried to attack several log cabins used by British troops by setting the roofs on fire, but the raid was unsuccessful because a thunderstorm put the fires out. Col. Sumter and Major Davie then met again at Lands Ford.

On August 5, the Wading Rock - a directional marker the Catawbas had taught to the settlers - was visible in the Catawba River shoals. With the water down, the 600 Patriot soldiers made plans to attack British soldiers again at Hanging Rock. They marched to the encampment about two miles south of Heath Springs near the battle site along Hanging Rock Creek. The British troops were surprised and overrun in about four hours. Many did not survive and losses were estimated at 350 men. Others were wounded, captured and taken prisoner.

The Americans were successful in making the British abandon the Hanging Rock outpost and took many supplies, but it's seen as an indecisive victory because Sumter, Davie, and their men withdrew.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 11, 1780 at Lynches Creek, South Carolina

Maj. Gen. Horatio Gates marched his newly-formed army out of North Carolina into South Carolina and was looking for Maj. Gen. Richard Caswell's North Carolina Militia, which was supposed to meet him at Mask's Ferry in Anson County (NC), but Caswell had moved his men to be in position to attack the British post at Lynches Ferry. Gates moved his force in that direction, hoping to save the Patriot Militia from themselves. Meanwhile, Col. Francis, Lord Rawdon learned of Gates's entry into South Carolina and he marched his men to occupy the bridge across the western branch of Lynches Creek, known as Little Lynches Creek. The British outpost at Lynches Ferry withdrew and joined Lord Rawdon's army.

Gates and his Continentals, now reinforced with NC militia, moved towards Lord Rawdon and actually succeeded in flanking Lord Rawdon's force, which was much smaller than Gates's army. The Patriots engaged British sentries with long-range rifles, but never hit any of them. After a two-day delay, Gates moved up the creek and crossed over.

Lord Rawdon did not want to risk a major fight at this location since he knew that Lt. General Charles, Lord Cornwallis was on his way to rendezvous at Camden, so Lord Rawdon withdrew back to Camden and established a camp at Log Town. He ordered the Loyalist militia to harass the Patriots and lead them away from his retreat, which they succeeded in accomplishing, taking Major General Gates 35 miles out of his way - buying Lord Rawdon time for the upcoming Battle of Camden.

While most of the Continental Army's Southern Command was beseiged at Charlestown, Major General Baron Johann DeKalb took control of what remained of the Southern Department's troops. On April 16, he marched from Morristown, NJ with 1,400 men. These were six Maryland and Delaware Continental regiments and the 1st Continental Artillery regiment. With this large group of men were their wives, children, laundresses, and other camp followers, which was typical of the times.

Major General DeKalb had hoped to be reinforced by state authorities along the way, but little help was provided to him. His army was in Granville County, North Carolina when news arrived that Charlestown had fallen on May 12th. DeKalb's army had no horses or wagons and his men had to carry everything on their backs. Sick, tired, and hungry, his men marched on to Buffalo Ford on the Deep River in North Carolina and made camp there - 125 miles northeast of Camden, SC.

The state of North Carolina did not welcome Major General DeKalb nor his army. Former governor Richard Caswell was the Major General of all NC Militia and he refused to join, cooperate, or communicate regularly with DeKalb. The Maryland and Delaware Continentals were left to starve by the people they were sent to help - the Carolinians. Slight hope came when the news arrived that this army would soon be under the command of Major General Horatio Gates.

The Continental Congress appointed Major General Horatio Gates to the Southern Department on June 13, 1780, hoping that militias would rally to him, as the New England militia had in 1777. Previous Southern Department leader, Major General Charles Lee warned him upon his departure, "Beware lest you exchange your Northern laurels for Southern willows." A tad prophetic.

When Gates arrived in Hillsborough, North Carolina on July 13th, he wrote a letter informing Major General Baron DeKalb that he was relieved of command - not bothering to tell the man to his face. Gates was unhappy about the condition in which he found his army and he sent letters to North Carolina, Deleware, and Maryland legislators, and to the Continental Congress. He was astounded that there were no supply depots set up for his troops.

On July 25, he finally linked up with his army of 1,500 hungry and anxious men with DeKalb on Deep River. However, he ignored their pathetic condition and "ordered that the troops to hold themselves in readiness to march at a moment's warning." He assured them that rations were on the way, yet within 72 hours they were marching south to go after the British. This confused the officers and even appeared to some to be treasonous.

Gates decided to head directly for Camden, South Carolina - to take the fight directly to the British as quickly as possible. His senior leaders advised him to take a different path, but he ignored them all. None of his officers openly questioned his orders, but he finally explained his actions to one of his assistants, Lt. Col. Otho Williams. Gates knew that Major General Richard Caswell and his NC Militia were out in northeastern South Carolina and that they would never come to him - so, he was going to them. He felt that if this NC Militia were defeated in a battle before he could unite their forces he would not be able to muster them again.

In the meantime, Caswell had moved his Militia in order to attack a smaller British post at Lynches Ferry. Major General Gates alterered his course accordingly, hoping to save Caswell from himself. At that time, Lt. Col. Charles Armand and his cavalry found Major General Gates on his way to Lynches Creek.

In Gates' military career he had not had much experience using cavalry. In the battles around Saratoga he had defeated the British without cavalry. What he didn't know was that in South Carolina every man rode whenever possible - the terrain simply made infantry fighting almost obsolete. Every Continental dragoon regiment that would serve in the Carolinas and most Patriot militias in the Carolinas were mounted. The only way to out-maneuver the British was to put the cavalry to full use. Gates did not know this, and apparently he did not care to learn. In one instance he had the cavalry horses pull the wagons though the marshes along his route.

At the end of July, Col. Charles Porterfield and his Light Infantry of Virginia joined up with Major General Gates. Virginians and North Carolinians who had escaped Charlestown and the Waxhaws arrived next. Crossing into South Carolina, Major General Gates and his army found fields of green corn flourishing along the banks of the Pee Dee River and the men ate their fill - their first full stomachs in months.

On August 4, Col. Francis Marion rode into camp. Maryland Col. Otho Williams wrote:

"Colonel Marion, a gentleman of South Carolina, had been with the army a few days, attended to by a very few followers, distinguished by small black leather caps and the wretchedness of their attire; their number did not exceed twenty men and boys, some white, some black, and all mounted, but most of them miserably equipped; their appearance was in fact so burlesque that it was with much difficulty the diversion of the regular soldiery was restrained by the officers; and the general himself was glad of an opportunity of detaching Colonel Marion, at his own instance, towards the interior of South Carolina, with orders to watch the motions of the enemy and furnish intelligence."

Major General Gates had decided that Col. Marion's comical army was of no use to him in the swamps of South Carolina, and sent them out to gather intelligence and deliver a proclamation to the citizents that he would protect them from "acts of barbarity and devastation." He also ordered them to seize all the boats along the Santee River to deny their use by the British when Gates defeated them.

Meanwhile, Col. Francis, Lord Rawdon had learned of the battle at Hanging Rock and thought that Col. Thomas Sumter had captured the post. He knew that Major General Horatio Gates was approaching Camden but he felt that Col. Sumter's mounted force was a larger threat to his post. Lord Rawdon called upon all male inhabitants in and around Camden to take up arms. Some did, but 160 of the town's residents refused - and they were promptly tossed into the small Camden jail. Twenty men of the highest standing were manacled to the walls.

Lord Rawdon marched his army to the west branch of Lynches Creek towards Granny's Quarter. The next morning he learned that Col. Sumter had not taken Hanging Rock and the post was still in British hands. Lord Rawdon immediately moved to occupy the bridge across the western branch of Lynches Creek.

On August 7, Major General Gates rendezvoused with 1,800 North Carolinians under Major General Richard Caswell. Both commanders were cordial. Col. Otho Williams wrote:

"The reception was gracious, and the general and his suite were regaled with wine and other novelties, exquisitely grateful and pleasingly exhilirating; but, a man must have been intoxicated, not to perceive the confusion which prevailed in the camp - tables, chairs, bedsteads, benches, and many other articles of heavy and cumbrous household stuff, were scattered before the tent doors in great disorder."

The combined army marched towards Lynches Creek the next day. Major Dean was ordered to escort the women and children back to Charlotte, but most remained because there were no wagons to take them back. Meanwhile, the enemy fell back to Little Lynches Creek where they met up with reinforcements from Camden.

Lord Rawdon posted the Volunteers of Ireland, the 33rd Regiment, the 23rd Regiment of Welsh Fusiliers, and the 71st Regiment (Highlanders) at the creek. He wanted to delay the approach of Major General Gates while he waited for British cavalry from Charlestown and light infantry from Ninety-Six. Lord Rawdon was outnumbered four-to-one and if he attacked then the Patriots would have easily defeated him. He did not wish to retreat to defend Camden since Major General Gates would be able to capture many British stores there.

Gates made a move as if to flank the British defenses located there. A skirmish followed when Lt. Col. Armand's Legion drove in some of the British sentries, but the creek banks were too steep, muddy, and slippery, and the swamp was too wide. A cornet of Lt. Col. Armand's Legion was captured. Major General Gates did not want to make a frontal attack and remarked that to do so would be "taking the bull by the horns." The Patriots did engage the British with long-range rifle fire, but to no effect. After a two day wait, Major General Gates moved up the creek and crossed.

Since he had been flanked, and not wanting to risk a major fight, Lord Rawdon withdrew back to Camden and set up camp once again in Log Town. He later wrote that his main objective had been to slow down Major General Gates so that Lord Cornwallis would have time to bring reinforcements from Charlestown.

Neither army could see each other across the river due to thick woods. Major General Gates could not move across the river so he moved his army to Rugeley's Mill by way of Hanging Rock. This took him 35 miles from Camden, where he had been only 15 miles away beforehand. Major General Gates arrived at his desired location on August 15th and waited for the arrival of Col. Thomas Sumter and his militia - which never arrived.
Conclusion: British Victory

August 12, 1780 at Brown's Creek, South Carolina

Capt. John Moffett vs. Major Patrick Ferguson, Lt. Alexander Chesney, 12 August 1780.

Alexander Chesney's journal:

"I was taken at Grindall Shoal by a party of rebels under Eusaw [Esau] Smith and Desmond, who took from me a Rifle gun borrowed of John Heron my brother-in-law, but as soon as they set out for the rebel camp I made my escape joined Coll Ferguson at Culbered, and received his thanks and friendship; on the 9th August was appointed Captn an assistant Adjutant General of the different battalions under [the Brave] Coll [Major] Ferguson [of the 71st Regiment, Inspector General of Militia] same day he was attached. I was with him in all his marches through the frontiers of North and South Carolina and until his defeat at King’s Mountain on Kiner’s Creek on the North East side of Broad River about 20 miles from my own residence – which defeat happened on the 9th October 1780.]; and same day we attacked the enemy at the Iron Works and defeated them with little trouble to ourselves and a good deal of loss to the Americans in whose hands I found some of our men prisoners whom I released.

Our next rout [August 12] was down towards the Fishdam-ford on Broad-River, where there was a fight near the mouth of Brown's Creek with Neale's militia when we made many prisoners amongst the rest Esaw [Esau] Smith, who had taken me so recently; after this we crossed that River and formed a junction with troops under command of Coll Turnbull and the Militia under Coll Phillips and having received authentic accounts that Sumpter had cut off our retreat to Lord Cornwallis' Army at Camden, we had it in contemplation to cross Broad- River and retreat to Charles-town at this time the half-way men, (as those not hearty in the cause were called) left us; we then marched to the rebel Col Winn's and encamped there waiting for more authentic accounts. On the 16th we heard a heavy firing towards Camden, which kept us in the utmost anxiety till the 18th when a letter was received from Captn Ross aid [Aide] de camp to Lord Cornwallis informing us that his Lordship had attacked & defeated Gates' Army."
Conclusion: British Victory

August 15, 1780 in Port's Ferry, South Carolina

General Francis Marion, the “Swamp Fox,” and his irregular cavalry force of 250, rout a party of Loyalists commanded by Major Micajah Gainey. Marion has 2 men wounded, while the losses of the Loyalists are unknown.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: 2w; British: ?

August 15, 1780 at Fort Carey, South Carolina

A leading Loyalist, Lt. Col. James Carey built a fort that guarded the main ferry crossing about a mile from Camden, located on the west bank of the Wateree River on McCaa's Hill. This small fort was built on his own plantation, and was manned with 37 Loyalists.

Col. Thomas Sumter sent Col. Thomas Taylor and Col. Edward Lacey to scout Carey's Fort and determine if it could be taken. Col. Taylor surprised the fort and found it's entire garrison asleep. The Patriots quickly rushed in and captured all of the occupants, along with 36 wagons with supplies, including a load of rum.

Col. Taylor found out from his prisoners that another supply train was on its way to the fort from Ninety-Six, and since his men were dressed the same as the Loyalists, he set a trap. By the time the convoy realized what was going on, they too were his prisoners. Col. Taylor's men captured another 32 wagons of supplies, and 70 more men from the 71st Highlanders, mostly sick.

Col. Sumter's entire force moved in and occupied the newly-captured fort.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 16, 1780 at Parker's Old Field, South Carolina

On the afternoon of August 15th, Lt. General Charles, Lord Cornwallis sent out Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton to gain intelligence on Major General Horatio Gates's Patriot army. He intercepted a Patriot patrol and brought back three prisoners. They told Lord Cornwallis that their unit was to join Major General Gates as he marched on Camden that night. Lord Cornwallis ordered his army to march north at 10:00 PM, to gain surprise against Major General Gates.

The two fairly large armies surprised each other around 2:30 AM. on a slight rise near Saunder's Creek called Parker's Old Field. The British Legion hailed Lt. Col. Armand's Legion, then spotted Lt. Col. Porterfield's light infantry on their flank by the light of the moon. A single pistol shot rang out from Lt. Col. Armand's lead horseman, who promptly rode back to the security of the Light Infantry, 300 yards to the rear.

Lt. Col. Charles Tuffin Armand rode over to Lt. Col. Charles Porterfield and whispered, "There is the enemy, Sir. Must I charge him?" Lt. Col. Porterfield replied, "By all means, Sir." Armand rode back to his troops in the road, but it was too late.

Lt. Col. Tarleton's Legion charged first. He "came on at the top of his speed, every officer and soldier with a yell of an Indian savage - at every leap their horses took, crying out 'charge, charge, charge' so that their own voices and the echoes resounded in every direction through the pine forest."

Lt. Col. Armand's men held their ground and emptied their pistols at the charging British Legion. Then, they drew their sabres and rode at their enemy. Lt. Col. Armand ordered his right flank to come up on line instead of retreating. He knew that Lt. Col. Porterfield's light infantry was on their flanks and would protect them.

As desired, the infantry on both sides rose to expectations and caught Lt. Col. Tarleton's British Legion in a cross fire and forced them to withdraw. The Virginia Militia had never been in a fight before and fled back to the main body on the road. Lt. Col. Armand's Legion withdrew with them causing confusion for a few minutes. Disorder reigned throughout the entire MD 1st Regiment, but Lt. Col. Porterfield's Light Infantry stopped any possible British advantage. After about twenty minutes of disorganized battle, both sides fell back to regroup.

Lt. Col. Porterfield, with his horse reigned directly at the enemy, received a terrible wound in his left leg, a little below the knee, which shattered it to pieces. Falling forward to the pommel of his saddle, he directed Capt. Drew to order retreat, which was done in an even tone. The Patriots instantly fell back obliquely from the road, which was wholly secluded from the enemy. Lt. Col. Porterfield was eventually removed from the battlefield, after his horse fell and those around him were still being fired at.

Back on the road, Major General Horatio Gates learned that his men had just stumbled upon the main British force under Lt. General Charles, Lord Cornwallis, whom they thought was still in Camden waiting for their arrival. Major General Gates retreated and took up a defensive position across the Charlotte Road, deciding to wait until morning to commence his attack.

Meanwhile, Col. Francis, Lord Rawdon came down the road and dismounted to inspect a dead Patriot. He suspected that they might be Continentals due to the way they were fighting and their clothing proved him to be correct. He informed Lord Cornwallis of his findings and advised him that they were on good ground to fight a larger force, since the swamps on each side proted their flanks. Lord Cornwalls also decided it best to wait until morning to launch HIS attack.
Conclusion: British Victory

August 16, 1780 at Rugeley's Mills, South Carolina

Lt. Col. Banastare Tarleton, commanding the cavalry of the British Legion, pursued remnants of the Patriot Army fleeing after the battle of Camden back up Flat Rock Road. A skirmish took place between the British Legion and a force of Armand’s Legion cavalry on the southwest side of Grannies Quarter Creek.

Most of the Patriot's reserve force at the battle of Camden simply did not come into play very much. Col. Otho Williams (on Major General Horatio Gates's staff) later accused the NC and VA militia of plundering the Patriot wagon train, looting baggage, etc. Lt. Col. Charles Tuffin Armand attempted to rally his men and the scattering militia units around him at Rugeley's Bridge, where Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton caught up with them.

The Patriots offered a brief resistance, but Lt. Col. Tarleton's men were too seasoned and quickly frightened the militia units off, pursuing them all the way to Hanging Rock, twenty-two miles away.
Conclusion: British Victory

August 20, 1780 at Benbow's Ferry, South Carolina

British Major James Wemyss destroyed many homes, killed cattle and sheep, in this small community.
Conclusion: British Victory

August 27, 1780 at Kings Tree, Williamsburg County, South Carolina

Within days of the ambush at Nelson's Ferry ambush, Marion moved to intercept Maj. James Wemyss on his way from the High Hills of the Santee to the Kingstree area. With Wemyss were his own 63rd Regt. totaling about 300 (one account says 500.) Upon hearing of the incident at Nelson's Ferry, Cornwallis had ordered Wemyss from Camden to get rid of Marion. Many of the 63rd, however, were weak from malaria. In support of Wemyss, Cornwallis sent Maj. John Harrison's Provincials) the South Carolina Rangers) and Bryan's North Carolina Refugees. As well, Lieut. Col. John Hamilton and 100 men of the Royal North Carolina Regt. were dispatched to Radcliffe's Bridge. While in the area, Wemyss had been confiscating burning houses and confiscating horses from the rebels.

Marion sent Maj. John James to scout ahead. In a night attack, James subsequently waylaid Wemyss stragglers and captured 30 of the enemy, then beat a hasty retreat. According to McCrady's numbers, Marion had 150, lost 30 killed and wounded; Wemyss had 300, 15 were killed and wounded, and 15 taken prisoner. James later rejoined Marion, who then fell back to Port's Ferry. The next day (the 28th) he disbanded his men, and with a small group of officers and men temporarily went up to North Carolina. Bass interestingly makes no reference to such a large scale ambush, but does mention a soldier captured from Wemyss' column by James' men from whom Marion obtained important information.

Also Bass gives the date for this occurrence as the night of 7 September, rather than 27 August. Like Bass, Ripley believes that either the ambush as described by William Dobein James (John James' son) never took place, or else the reported capture was greatly exaggerated.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: 5k, 15w 10c; British: 30k,w&c

September of 1780

September ??, 1780 at Rouse's Ferry, South Carolina

Capt. Clayburn Hinson of the Cheraws District Regiment of Militia was assigned to "draft or impress cattle wherevery they could be found" and he and his men were confronted by an unrecorded NC Loyalist group. This skirmish occurred in what is now Dillon County, SC, but a more accurate location is currently not known.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

September ??, 1780 at Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina

During this month, Capt. Deshon and his North Carolina privateer General Nash captured two brigs. The brig General Nash had twenty guns and was owned by John Wright Stanley of New Bern.

Capt. Deshon brought the two captured ships into the port of Cape Fear. One brig was from St. Christopher with a cargo of rum and sugar. The other was from Scotland. Both ships amounted to a prize worth about £50,800.
Conclusion: American Victory

September ??, 1780 at Graham's Fort, North Carolina

Col. William Graham had been a delegate to represent Tryon County in the Fifth Provincial Congress, and had taken part in the deliberations that produced North Carolin's first state constitution. He had fought at Moore's Creek Bridge and the Cherokee Expedition of 1776, and was a very wanted man by many Loyalists. He had constructed a large log cabin on Buffalo Creek, which soon became known as Graham's Fort. Because of the increased Loyalist activities many people would gather at the strongest place in the region, and in Lincoln County (at that time) that was Graham's Fort.

In September of 1780, a band of Loyalist raiders approached the fort and demanded entrance. Inside were Col. Graham, two other men - David Docky and William Twitty - and many young, old, and infirmed settlers. When Col. Graham refused to permit the Loyalists inside, they attacked. They fired at the house, and after each volley they demanded for Col. Graham to surrender, yelling, "Damn you, won't you surrender now?"

Since they were doing no damage Col. Graham refused. One of the Loyalists, John Burke, left the ranks and raced up to the large cabin. He placed his musket through a crack and aimed at 19-year-old William Twitty. When Burke fired, Twitty's 17-year-old sister, Susan, pulled him to safety - the musket ball missed him and hit the opposite wall. Susan looked through the crack and saw that Burke was on his knees reloading. She shouted, "Brother William, now's your chance - shoot the rascal." Twitty fired and sent a ball into Burke's head.

Susan ran out of the cabin and grabbed Burke's gun and ammunition. Stunned, the Loyalists held their fire. Once back inside, Susan began firing at the Loyalists as fast as she could reload.

After losing John Burke and having four others wounded, the Loyalists withdrew. Col. Graham sent his pregnant wife and all the others to a safer location. He then moved his men to a better site. After his departure, the Loyalists returned, plundered the fort, and carried off six of his slaves.
Conclusion: American Victory

September ??, 1780 at McAlpine Creek, North Carolina

Col. John Peasley and his Militia marched to Salisbury to join Brigadier General (Pro Tempore) William Lee Davidson's brigade. Richard Vernon was in Capt. George Peay's company and wrote that when they reached McAlpine Creek in Mecklenburg County they spotted a British patrol, and "retreated to the north side of the Yadkin River. On our retreat, we were overtaken by the English and had a skirmish with them." Vernon also wrote that several men were killed "among whom were William Rankin, and a Mr. Sock of my acquaintance."
Conclusion: British Victory

September 9, 1780 at Anson County, North Carolina

As the British went looking for Col. Francis Marion in the lowcountry of South Carolina, many Patriots moved up into North Carolina to wait for a better time to strike. While there they conducted actions against the North Carolina Loyalists with very little threat of retaliation by British forces.

On September 9, Col. Abel Kolb of the Cheraws District Regiment (SC Militia) led 80-100 men against Loyalists at two locations within Anson County, North Carolina - which was just across the border from his home in South Carolina.

The Loyalists lost three men killed and five men wounded.
Conclusion: American Victory

September 10, 1780 at Mask's Ferry, North Carolina

On September 10, Capt. Herrick and his light horse militia attacked a party of Loyalists near Mask's Ferry on the Pee Dee River. Herrick killed some and took 11 prisoners.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: unknown; British: 11c

September 12, 1780 at Cane Creek, North Carolina

Capt. James Dunlap was the commander of the advance party of Major Patrick Ferguson's Provincial army and as they moved towards the mountains there was almost constant skirmishing with the Patriots.
Loyalist Lt. Alexander Chesney wrote:

"We continued some time at the Iron Works, and whilst there, a party of Loyalist with whom I was, defeated Col. Beauman, destroyed some of his party, and scattered the rest. I was present also, at a small affair at Fair Forest, the particulars of which, as well as numerous other skirmishes, having escaped my memory, scarcely a day passed without some fighting... we marched with horse and some foot past Gilbert's Town towards Colonel Grimes' who was raising a body of rebels to oppose us, when we succeeded in dispersing, taking many prisoners, and then joined the foot at Gilbert's town."

Chesney continued:

"Colonel Ferguson soon got intelligence that Colonel McDowell was encamped at Cain and Silver Creeks, on which we marched towards the enemy, crossed the winding creek 23 times, found the rebel army strongly posted towards the head of it near the mountains."

Col. Charles McDowell had been riding along the Broad River and was retreating towards the Watauga settlements in what would later become east Tennessee. Col. McDowell learned that Maj. Ferguson was approaching and decided to lay in an ambush where the Loyalists would cross at Cane Creek Ford. Col. McDowell's men were positioned on a hill that "was a small round elevation about a quarter of a mile from the base of the South Mountain then covered with timber and surrounded by a soft swamp."

When the Loyalists crossed the ford, Col. McDowell sprung his ambush. Capt. Dunlap was severely wounded in the thigh. The American Volunteers under Major Ferguson counter-attacked and took seventeen prisoners along with twelve Patriot horses.

Major Joseph McDowell, the colonel's brother, hollered out to the men to never yield, and to stand with him and die. The Loyalists fell back from the spirited defense and retreated from the ford. Col. McDowell realized that his force was out-numbered and retreated across the mountains to Watauga. Major Ferguson's advance party followed for a short while, then withdrew back to Gilbert Town.

Provincial Lt. Anthony Allaire wrote in his diary:

"We totally routed them killed one private, wounded a Capt. White, took seventeen prisoners, twelve horses, all their ammunition, which was only twenty pounds of powder, after which we marched to their encampment and found it abandoned by those Congress heroes. Our loss was two wounded and one killed. Among the wounded was Capt. Dunlap, who received two slight wounds."

As a result of this insignificant victory, Major Patrick Ferguson came to the erroneous and fatal conclusion that the resistance to the Crown in western North Carolina was at an end.
Conclusion: American Victory

September 14, 1780 at Black Mingo, South Carolina

Col. Francis Marion attacked a Loyalist encampment and drove them into the swamp.
Conclusion: American Victory

September 15, 1780 at McGill's Plantation, South Carolina

Major James Wemyss was under orders from Lt. General Charles, Lord Cornwalls to disarm "in the most rigid manner" all those who opposed British rule. His force included 200 British Regulars of the 63rd Regiment of Foot and 100 Provincials of the Royal North Carolina Regiment and the SC Rangers.

Major Wemyss had his men to break spinning looms and burn any mills in their path. They were instructed to shoot milk cows and to bayonet sheep - this was to deprive the locals of clothing and food. Major Wemyss and his men laid waste to over 50 plantations, carried off their slaves as slave labor for the British army, and hanged several men who opposed these actions. Fortunately for the lowcountry citizens the corn was not housed yet and was able to be salvaged, for the most part.

There was some opposition to these invaders. Capt. John James, Jr. fired upon Majir Wemyss's men at McGill's Plantation, but this only enraged the enemy even more. Adam Cusack shot at a Loyalist officer, but missed and killed the officer's black servant instead. Cusack's wife and children threw themselves in front of Major Wemyss's horse, begging for mercy for her husband. Major Wemyss would have rode over the kneeling woman if it hadn't been for his own officers stopping him. Therefore, he hanged Cusack in front of his wife and children. Dr. James Wilson tried to stop the hanging, but he had his home burned for interfering.

Dr. Wilson then rode to North Carolina with many others from the area and joined Col. Francis Marion's brigade. Major James Wemyss became the second most hated man in the Carolinas after Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton, and one of Col. Marion's best recruiters. Once he learned of the carnage, Col. Francis Marion returned to the South Carolina lowcountry.
Conclusion: British Victory

September 16, 1780 at Williamson's Bridge, South Carolina

Skirmish between Patriot militia Lt. Col. Lemuel Benton and Loyalists in the area on the road between Mechanicsville and the present-day town of Florence.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

September 21, 1780 at Wahab's Plantation, Lancaster County, South Carolina

When about September 8, Cornwallis moved with his army to Waxhaws, it was on the same ground occupied by Davie in June and July, located on the S.C.-N.C. border. It was a rich country but one much devastated by warfare and neglect, and many plantations completely deserted, and many of the inhabitants killed, captured or made refugees. Davie had recently been appointed Col. Commandant of all cavalry of North Carolina. He had 70 dragoons and two companies of riflemen commanded by Maj. George Davidson, he was posted 25 miles above the British camp at Providence, and 14 miles south of Charlotte. The 71st Regt. was posted about a half mile in Cornwallis rear, Cornwallis on the north side of Waxhaws Creek.

To the east of the 71st were some loyalist light troops and militia, who had been spreading "havoc and destruction." Davie finding out about this, "formed a design to attack them."

Early morning of September 20, he circled Cornwallis position, coming from the east. Finding the loyalist had moved a few days before, he continued scouting and found them at Wahab's plantation, a location overlooked by the camp of the 71st. It is not clear who these loyalists were, but references which suggest that horsemen were present among their ranks make it probable that they included Harrison's Provincials.

On the morning of September 21, Davie surprised and routed them, though he could not follow this up as being too risky. At one point in the fighting some of the loyalists were surrounded, Davie's cavalry cut them down, being unable to take prisoners due to the proximity of the 71st. Davie did, however, capture some arms (120 stand) and 96 horses, and with the horses Maj. Davidson's men were mounted. The British lost 15 to 20 killed, and 40 wounded, while only one of the "Americans" was wounded.

The late arriving British, in retaliation, burned the home of Capt. James Wahab, who himself had acted as a guide for Davie. That same afternoon Davie returned to his camp, having performed a march of 60 miles in 24 hours.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: 1w; British: 60k&w

September 26, 1780 at Bigger's Ferry, South Carolina

Skirmish, Col. Richard Winn vs. Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

September 28, 1780 at Pee Dee Swamp, South Carolina

Capt. Gavin Witherspoon and four of Col. Francis Marion's men were patrolling the Pee Dee Swamp and discovered a small Loyalist camp. His men did not want to go into the camp, so he went in alone. Capt. Witherspoon crept up into the camp and found all of the Loyalists asleep and their muskets leaning up against a pine tree. He secured the muskets and then woke the sleeping Loyalists by loudly demanding their surrender. The seven sleepy Loyalists did so when they saw Capt. Witherspoon's men approaching.
Conclusion: American Victory

October of 1780

October ??, 1780 at Gilbert Town, North Carolina

Loyalist Capt. James Dunlap had been wounded at the skirmish at Cane Creek in September and was recovering at the home of Mrs. Gilbert. As Lt. General Charles, Lord Cornwallis was leaving Charlotte, two or three South Carolinians rode up to find Capt. Dunlap.
Capt. Gillespie was allegedly in the Spartan Regiment (SC), and he found out that Capt. Dunlap was in Mrs. Gilbert's home. She let the South Carolinians in - thinking that they must be Loyalists with some important information for Capt. Dunlap.

Capt. Gillespie quickly informed her that he and his men were there to kill Capt. James Dunlap because he had put some of their friends to death, and had abducted Mary McRea, the fiancée of Capt. Gillespie. Dunlap had kept Mary McRea in hopes that she would yield to his wishes. It was said that she died of a broken heart instead.

Capt. Gillespie mounted the stairs and approached Capt. Dunlap as he lay in his bed. "Where is Mary McRea," he demanded. "In heaven," was Dunlap's reply.

Capt. Gillespie then shot James Dunlap through the body, leaving him for dead, and rode away. Dunlap did not die. He was concealed by his friends and taken to the fort of Ninety-Six in South Carolina.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

October ??, 1780 at Myhand's Bridge, North Carolina

Capt. John C. Williams was born with a harelip, which caused a speech impediment. He slurred the letter "c" into "she" or "shay," and became known as "Shay" Williams. After Lt. General Charles, Lord Cornwallis invaded North Carolina in late 1780, Williams created a militia company in Duplin County. He had been a Private in the militia and a Lieutenant in the NC Continentals from 1776 to 1778.
Capt. Williams' men were hard fighters, well-drilled, and excellent horsemen. Their "discipline" was not so excellent - the men fought amongst themselves when not engaged with the enemy. They regulary settled petty disputes with long knives and fists, and all drank excessively when it was available.

After the war, Capt. Williams told Richard Clinton that his men could drill "as neatly as any militia could hope for, afoot or mounted, and fight like savages when needed."

After Lord Cornwallis's arrival into the state, the Loyalists became greatly motivated in many areas and they began to assemble and to organize. One of the leaders in Duplin County was Middleton Mobley, who gathered some of his followers and laid an ambush at Myhand's Bridge to disrupt traffic in the area.

Capt. John "Shay" Williams and his mounted men patrolled Duplin County looking for just such activities and they rode up to Mobley's ambush before they knew what was going on. Mobley had already captured some wagons when he spotted Capt. Williams and fired upon the Patriots, who for some reason became very disorganized. One of Capt. Williams's men was killed and several were badly wounded. Had Mobley pushed them he might have saved his captured wagons, but his Loyalists followed into the swamps and down the Cross Creek Road, sniping at the Patriots who were retreating, now in an organized manner.

Capt. Williams demanded that the last man standing, a wagon driver, surrender a load of meal and cloth that he thought had been stolen by the raiding party. The wagoner refused and threatened Williams and two men with a musket and a sword. Capt. Williams immediately shot the man with his pistol. He then ripped a piece of the striped fabric from the cargo, wiped his face and coat, and folded the rag over his belt.

His men then followed suit, some pinning a square piece of the cloth to their hats, others wrapping longer sections over their belts or around their waists. The "striped sash" became Capt. John C. Williams version of a cockade. From that time on, Patriots moving about in west Duplin County (now Sampson County) were advised to obtain a piece of striped cloth to show their Patriot sympathies.
Conclusion: American Victory

October 3, 1780 at Richmond Town, North Carolina

Much of the North Carolina militia gathered at Quaker Meadows in central Burke County on October 2nd to oppose Major Patrick Ferguson's expedition into the western sections of both Carolinas. The "mountain men" from Virginia and western North Carolina joined them, and they all marched to find Major Ferguson, who had last been seen at Gilbert Town in Rutherford County.

While the many Patriots were gathering in Burke County in preparation to stop Major Patrick Ferguson, Gideon and Hezekiah Wright raised a large group of Loyalists within Surry County. On October 3rd, Loyalists under Col. Gideon Wright attacked the Surry County Court House in Richmond Town, the recent county seat. They killed the sheriff (Mr. Hedgspeth) of Surry County and took several prisoners. The Loyalists also raided the home of Capt. William Shepherd because he had ridden off to fight Major Ferguson.
Conclusion: British Victory

October 3, 1780 at Mecklenburg County, North Carolina

After a week in Charlotte, Lt. General Charles, Lord Cornwallis needed to send out foraging parties to replenish his supplies. A large foraging party of 450 Provincials under the command of Capt. John Doyle moved out of Beattie's Ford Road with sixty wagons. A local boy notified the McIntyre family that the Loyalists were coming.
Then, the boy rode on and informed Capt. James Thompson of the local militia. Capt. Thompson quickly rounded up Capt. James Knox and thirteen farmers to harass Capt. Doyle's troops, and then hid the riflemen in two locations at the McIntyre farm.

Capt. Thompson watched as Capt. Doyle's men plundered McIntyre's barns and raided their livestock pens. The Provincials tied their horses to the farm wagons while they went about their work. When the baggage wagons arrived they loaded bags of corn and oats onto them.

During the pillaging, the Loyalists accidentally knocked over some beehives and found themselves under attack by the swarming bees. One Loyalist officer stood in the doorway and laughed as the men swatted at the bees and ran from the danger.

As they were occupied, Capt. Thompson and his men approached the raiders. He yelled out that he would take out a captain he had spotted and that every man should quickly select their target. Capt. Thompson and a militiaman named Francis Bradley fired at the same time. Thompson's shot found its mark and the man thought to be a captain fell dead. The enemy mounted their horses and formed a line, but Capt. Thompson and his men were able to reload and fire a second time.

Dogs were set loose on the Patriots and they pursued one group of Capt. Thompson's men: "The dogs came on the trail of these retreating men, and the leading one sprung upon the heels of a man who had just discharged his rifle. A pistol shot laid him dead, and the other dogs, coming up to him, paused, gave a howl, and returned."

Capt. Doyle believed that his men were being attacked by a much larger force and ordered a speeedy retreat back to Charlotte. More of the local farmers showed up and began firing at the British from concealment, in a skirmish that resembled the start of the war at Concord, Massachusetts.

Later, Rev. William Henry Foote wrote: "The leading horses of the wagons were some of them shot down before they ascended the hill by the branch, and the road was blocked up; and the retreat became a scene of confusion in spite of the discipline of the British soldiers, who drew up in battle array and offered to fight the invisible enemy that only changed their ground and renewed their fire."

Capt. Doyle's men rode so hard that "many of their horses fell dead in the streets." Eight Loyalists were killed, along with two horses. Twelve others were wounded.
Conclusion: American Victory

October 5, 1780 at Hollingsworth's Mill, South Carolina

About eight or ten Patriots were patrolling south of Kings Mountain to gain intelligence on where Major Patrick Ferguson and his American Volunteers were. They were also looking for other Patriot units to see what they were up to. This small patrol included Joseph Hughes, John Savage, William Sharp, William Giles, and Charles Crade of the 2nd Spartan Regiment of Militia.

Soon, they learned that 250 Loyalists were encamped at the schoolhouse near Hollingsworth's Mill on Brown's Creek. Since the schoolhouse was on the top of a hill and surrounded by a thick woods, the small patrol decided to "give them an alarm."

That night, this small group of Patropts surrounded the hill and approached at different angles. The plan was to continue close to the schoolhouse until a sentry challenged them then lie down and fire into the camp. Each man was to shoot then rush into the camp after firing.

As they approached, one of the sentinels did detect them and fired upon them. They rushed towards the Loyalists, screaming like Indians, and firing their muskets. The Loyalists must have thought they were out-numbered and fled into the night. By the time the small group of Patriots reached the fire there was not a Loyalist to be found, but they could be heard running through the woods.

They found wagons with horses hitched to them, guns stacked, cooking utensils, clothing and hats, but could not find a living soul among these items. When the sun came up they were faced with the problem of what to do with all of the goods sitting there. They moved all of the captured equipment away from the schoolhouse and watched it for several days, hoping to ambush any Loyalists that came back for their goods.

Finally, a small mounted force of fifteen Loyalists approached the area. The small group of Patriots fired on them and scattered them into the woods. One horse and rider could not get away and he surrendered. They then found some fellow Patriots who helped them carry away all of the captured goods.
Conclusion: American Victory

October 7, 1780 at Charlestown, South Carolina (Fair American vs. HMS Rodney)

On October 7, the South Carolina ship Fair American joined with the Privateer Holker. Together, they captured the brig HMS Rodney. The Rodney was bound for Charlestown.
Conclusion: American Victory

October 8, 1780 at Richmond Town, North Carolina

On October 8, the Loyalist militia in Surry County, commanded by Gideon and Hezekiah Wright, attacked Richmond Town. The Whig militia in town quickly fled the area.
Conclusion: British Victory.

October 9, 1780 at Polk's Mill, North Carolina

On October 9, a detachment of 120 mounted riflemen, commanded by Maj. Joseph Dickson, attacked a group of Royal Welch Fusilier's, commanded by Lt. Stephen Guyon, at Polk's Mill. The mill was being used by the British so that the army could forage. The Patriots captured 9 of the militia, but Guyon defended the blockhouse and drove the Patriots away.
Conclusion: British Victory. Casualties: American: 1k, 1w; British: 9c

October 11, 1780 at Fort George, New York

Loyalists and Indians, under Sir John Johnson and Chief Joseph Brant, capture Fort George and raid settlements in the vicinity of southern Lake George.
Conclusion: American Victory

October 14, 1780 at Charlestown, South Carolina (Fair American vs. HMS Richard)

On October 14, the South Carolina ship Fair American joined with the Privateer Holker. Together, they captured the brig HMS Richard.
Conclusion: American Victory

October 16, 1780 at Schoharie Valley, New York

On October 15 , Col. Sir John Johnson, son of Tory leader Sir William Johnson, led a force of 800-1,500 British regulars, Tories, and Indians to the Susquehanna River, in the Schoharie Valley. The Schoharie scouts reported to the settlers that Johnson and Chief Joseph Brant were leading a force against the Schoharie Valley.
That night, Johnson bypassed the Upper Fort and headed to the Middle Fort. Along the way, they burned all of the local farms as they passed them.

On October 16, they encamped for the night by Panther Mountain. Johnson expected to pass the Upper Fort before daylight and thus be able to attack the Middle Fort before it was prepared. Peter Feeck, going for his cows in the early morning, discovered the British force. After reporting this, the cannon boomed forth from the Upper Fort, warning the Middle Fort, which in turn gave the signal to the Lower Fort.

Records indicate that a strong northeast wind and snow squalls swept up the Valley that day. This aided the torch when the British set fire to all the buildings and crops. Cattle were either killed or driven away, and the best horses were appropriated by the British.

Johnson had given orders to spare all the churches of the Schoharie settlements, but a Tory named Chrysler, who held a grudge against some of its members, set the fire which destroyed the Low Dutch Church that stood in Weiser's Dorf. By evening, ruin and destruction was wrought throughout the Valley.
Conclusion: British Victory. Casualties: American: 5k, 13w; British: unknown

October 18, 1780 at Caughnawaga, New York

On October 18, Sir John Johnson passed through the settlement of Caughnawaga. He burned down all of the buildings and destroyed everything else that had been built after the earlier Battle of Caughnawaga. After destroying everything, he left the settlement.
Conclusion: British Victory.

October 23, 1780 at Kanadesega, New York

Capt. Walter Vrooman, leading a 60-man detachment, pursues the raiding force of Sir John Johnson until he is ambushed at Kanadesega, losing 4 killed and 56 captured.
Conclusion: British Victory

October 25, 1780 at Tearcoat Swamp, Clarendon County, South Carolina

When Marion, at Britton's Neck, learned of Tynes encampment he was able to call together 150 men (or up to 400 according to one source. ) Lieut. Col Samuel Tynes, operating in the vicinity of the High Hills area between Salem and Nelson's ferry, had been able to call up about 200 men whom he armed with stores coming from Camden.

Marion crossed the Pee Dee at Port's Ferry, then crossed Lynches River (also called Lynches Creek) at Witherspoon's Ferry and thus made his way to Kingstree. From there he tracked Tynes to Tearcoat swamp “in the fork of Black river,” where he surprised the loyalists. Tynes and his men were scattered, and a few days later Tynes and a few of his officers were captured by a detachment of Marion's commanded by Capt. William Clay Snipes. Tynes lost 6 killed 6, 14 wounded, and 23 taken prisoner. As well he lost 80 horses and saddles and as many muskets."

Tynes himself and a few of his officers were captured in the couple days following the action, though they subsequently escaped. Marion's own losses were anywhere from 3 to 26 killed and wounded. Many of Tynes men actually came in and enlisted with Marion, who sent his prisoners to Brig. Gen. Harrington at Cheraw, and proceeded to set up his camp at Snow Island for the first time.

Following Tynes' defeat, Cornwallis had 50 men sent from Charleston to Monck's Corner, while maintaining patrols covering his line of communication along the Santee River. Typical size forces British convoys had to guard against would be about a dozen men. McCrady gives Marion strength as 400, and says Tynes, with an unknown number, lost 26 killed and wounded.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: British: 3k, 14w

October 30, 1780 at Bear Swamp, South Carolina

In his 1832 pension application, William Easterling (R14028) noted:

"He was engaged in one battle with the Tories on Bear Swamp between Drowning Creek and Little Pee Dee River. Colonel Brown, Lt. Col. Richardson, Adjutant Robert Raiford and Capt. Anderson commanded the Whigs and Captain Barfield the Tories. Captain Anderson was shot down in this battle just by deponent's side, and was carried and deponent does not know whether he died or survived it. The Tories were defeated."

In 1834, William Easterling added the following:

"When under Colonel Brown in the County of Bladen in North Carolina, sometime after dark, we heard one of our sentinels cry out - who came there? He then fired and ran into the line of fire. Another sentinel stood near who thought it was cattle. He hailed Captain Barfield who commanded the Tories shoot and hit the sentinel in the back. The Tories continued their fire until they came so near that I could see their faces by the flash of their guns. Our men were in confusion.

"The Colonel ordered one side of the line of fire, the Adjutant on the other - Our officers succeeded in forming us and commencing fire. We had not fired more than four rounds before the Tories retreated. We were commanded by Colonel Brown, Lt. Col. Richardson, Adjutant Robert Raiford & Captain Anderson. The Tories by Captain Barfield.

"During the engagement Captain Anderson (a brave man and true Whig) was shot down by my side. He cried out - Oh Lord, I'm a dead man; what shall I do? - Adjutant Raiford who was as brave as ever lived, but who stuttered very badly, replied - Gu Gu_d in it l-l-lye close... poor Anderson's wound was mortal -- we were ordered [illegible], set out sentinels, and lay on our arms till morning."

After his wounding and escape from Col. Thomas Brown, Capt. Jesse Barefield slipped down the Little PeeDee River with a group of horsemen and made his way to Georgetown to help defend the small town from the expected attack by Col. Francis Marion, an enemy that Capt. Jesse Barefield despised.
Conclusion: American Victory

November of 1780

November, 1780 at Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina (Battle of Ocracoke Inlet)

In November, the North Carolina privateer General Nash struck again, capturing the brigs HMS Aggie, HMS Prince of Wales, and the HMS Kattie near the Ocracoke Inlet.
Conclusion: American Victory

November, 1780 at Enoree River, South Carolina

Loyalist Major Jonathan Frost ordered Capt. Alexander Chesney and his militia to "join him at the appointed place on the Enoree." Somehow, the Patriots learned of this rendezvous site, and when Capt. Chesney arrived Col. Benjamin Roebuck and his men captured them. They were immediately disarmed and marched away.

When Major Frost arrived and learned of Capt. Chesney's capture, he immediately pursued. Major Frost caught up with Col. Roebuck twelve miles upriver, but Col. Roebuck had his men in a strong defensive position inside a cabin. When Major Frost attacked, he was killed and the rest of his Loyalists fled.
Conclusion: American Victory

November, 1780 at Fort Rutledge, South Carolina

Capt. James Dunlap of Col. Elijah Clarke's (GA) Regiment, along with a detail from Lt. Col. James McCall's Mounted Rifles (Upper Ninety-Six District Regiment of Militia) fought the Loyalists to a "draw." Since both leaders were named James Dunlap, hence the alternate name for this skirmish, "Dunlap's Defeat".
Conclusion: Inconclusive

November, 1780 at Fishing Creek, South Carolina

About the time that Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton was plundering the countryside nearby, Capt. Robert Cooper learned of a "squad of Tories who had collected for the purpose of organizing to commit depredations in the neighborhood." He gathered his militia and rode towards the Loyalists who had fortified themselves in a log cabin.

He and his men approached the cabin at night, riding down a lane, hoping to be undetected. But, they were and a sentry fired at them. Capt. Cooper was wounded in the side and William Hale was severely wounded in the foot. Capt. Cooper continued onward and attempted to burn the cabin. Since the sentry's shot, there had been no shots coming from inside the house, so Capt. Cooper guessed that they were out of ammunition.

He ordered his men to construct a battering ram "by swinging a log with ropes & battered down the door." All of the Loyalists were captured.
Conclusion: American Victory

November, 1780 at Rutledge's Ford, South Carolina

On the Saluda River about four miles east of Honea Path, there is another skirmish site that is of more geographical than historical interest. The incident happened in 1780 after the battle of Blackstocks. Brigadier General Thomas Sumter's forces proceeded northward after that engagement; as they passed the iron works on Lawson Fork Creek, there was a division of forces, and the Georgians under Colonels Elijah Clarke, John Twiggs, and Benjamin Few struck out westward along the foothills of the mountain. They were soon joined by South Carolina troops under Major Samuel Hammond, Lt. Col. James McCall, and Capt. Moses Liddell.

The immediate object of the expedition was to attack a Loyalist fort at "Hoil's old place" on the Saluda River. From Samuel Hammond's later account, this must have been located in present Greenville County in the general vicinity of the SC Hwy. 86 bridge; the only clue to this puzzling reference is that there was an early settler in Ninety-Six District by the name of Hoyle.

Upon learning that the Patriots were approaching, the Loyalists abandoned the fort and crossed the Saluda at Rutledge's Ford, seventeen or eighteen miles downstream. The opposing parties fought a skirmish across Rutledge Shoals at rifle range. Although they were separated by the Saluda River, this affair was conducted in such deadly earnest that several people were killed on both sides.
Conclusion: American Victory

November 3, 1780 at Great Swamp, North Carolina

On November 3, Col. John Senf and a group of 91 Camden Militia attacked some Loyalists in Bladen County. The Loyalists were quickly driven away.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: 1w; British: 2k

November 7, 1780 at Richbourg's Mill, South Carolina

Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleston was ordered out of Logtown (next to Camden) to find Col. Francis Marion. Lt. Col. Tarleton found his way to the late Brigadier General Richard Richardson's home, bivouacked, and lit several large fires.

Col. Francis Marion, attracted by the fire lights, began scouting the area. Mrs. Richardson sent her son Col. Richard Richardson, Jr. to warn Col. Marion. When he learned of Lt. Col. Tarleton's planned ambush, he quickly withdrew to the east of Jack's Creek, most likely to the area near Richbourg's Mill and plantation.

Lt. Col. Tarleton learned of this and gave chase early the next day. For the rest of the story, see the incident at Ox Swamp.
Conclusion: Inconclusive Victory

November 8, 1780 at Ox Swamp, South Carolina

Bivouacked at the plantation of the late Brigadier General Richard Richardson, Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton laid an ambush for Col. Francis Marion on November 7. Marion was warned in time to avoid the ambush and he withdrew his Patriots to Richbourg's Mill near Jack Creek.

On the morning of November 8, Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton learned that his enemy had eluded him from one of Col. Marion's escaped Loyalist prisoners, and Lt. Col. Tarleton and his British Legion quickly gave chase.

Col. Francis Marion, staying just ahead of the British Legion cavalry and fighting a series of delaying tactics with Major John James leading his rear guard, Col. Marion and his many horsemen rode to the head of Jack's Creek at Sammy Swamp, then down the Pocotaligo River, and finally slipped away into the Ox Swamp. At Benbow's Ferry, he turned his new horse, Ball, into the chilly waters.

Here, after a seven-hour chase, Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton gave up the chase and swore "Come my boys! Let us go back and we will find the Gamecock. But as for this damned old fox, the devil himself could not catch him!"

Col. Francis Marion and his band of Patriots remained at Benbow's Ferry on the Black River where he prepared his own ambush for Lt. Col. Tarleton - however, Tarleton never came, but instead began burning homes in the vicinity, including the barn of Mrs. Richardson and all her livestock.

Soon, all the Patriots along the Santee River heard of Lt. Col. Tarleton's recent epithet and they quickly fastened the nickname of Swamp Fox forever upon their hero.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

November 14, 1780 at Bradley's Plantation, North Carolina

Francis Bradley was a Patriot with Capt. James Thompson at the Battle of the Bees on October 3rd. Afterwards he became a terror to Loyalists in Mecklenburg County by harassing their scouts and foraging parties. Bradley had killed a number of British sentries at long range with his rifle during Lord Cornwallis's short stay in Charlotte.

On November 14, the Loyalists had had enough. Four of them ambushed and killed Francis Bradley at his own plantation in Mecklenburg County.
Conclusion: British Victory

November 15, 1780 at Allston's Plantation, South Carolina

Col. Francis Marion wanted to take Georgetown because he needed supplies of salt, clothing, and ammunition for his men. The capture of Georgetown would also be a great blow to British morale in the lowcountry.

Col. Marion moved his partisans across the swamp to "White's Bay," north of the Black River and the Sampit River. He sent out Lt. Col. Peter Horry with two companies on a reconnaissance mission towards Black River, where they skirmished at White's Plantation. He also sent out Capt. John Melton with Capt. John Milton (of GA) to the Sampit Road to search in that direction.

Capt. John Melton's patrol was moving down the Sampit Road when he learned of a Loyalist party camping at "The Pens," the plantation of colonial Col. William Allston. Riding with Capt. Melton was Lt. Gabriel Marion, Col. Francis Marion's nephew.

As the small group of Patriots were passing through a dense swamp, they stumbled across Capt. Jesse Barefield and his Loyalists. Both sides fired at the same time. The Loyalists seized Lt. Gabriel Marion and began clubbing him with their muskets until he was knocked senseless. A mulatto named Sweat recognized who he was and he fired a load of buckshot into his heart, killing him instantly.

The next day, Col. Marion's men captured Sweat. As they were crossing the swamps that night, an officer rode up to Sweat and put a pistol to his head and shot him dead. Col. Marion was furious and publicly reprimanded the officer. Col. Marion did not condone any acts that were against the rules of war, and demanded that his men adhere to strict discipline of the regular army.
Conclusion: British Victory

November 15, 1780 at White's Bridge (also White's Plantation) and Alston's Plantation, Georgetown County, South Carolina

Members of Marion's force under Col. Peter Horry fought loyalist militia from Capt. James Lewis' company, at White's Plantation just outside Georgetown. The loyalists, who had been slaughtering cattle, were ultimately dispersed, however, only after a number of Col. Peter Horry's men were seriously wounded, and Capt. Lewis killed. On the same date, Marion sent a separate force under Captain John Melton to the Pens, or Alston's plantation, where they were ambushed and routed by Capt. Jesse Barfield's and his militia. Among the slain was Marion's nephew, Gabriel Marion. Marion later reported that Barfield was wounded.

On November 17, Marion wrote to Brig. Gen. Harrington from Black Mingo: "The day I got (to Georgetown) they received a reinforcement of 200 Tories under Captains Barefield and Lewis from Pee Dee. The next day the Tories came out and we scummaged (sic) with them. Part (of them) I cut off from the town, and drove the rest in, except the two men killed, and twelve taken prisoners, our loss was Lt. Gabriel Marion…Capt. Barefield was wounded in his head and body, but got off. Captain James Lewis, commonly called `otter skin Lewis' was one killed. I stayed two days within 3 miles of the town, in which time most of the Tories left their friends and went home.”

In his report to Gates on November 20, Marion stated that in his recent encounter outside Georgetown he had lost Lt. Gabriel Marion, one private also killed, and three wounded, while killing three loyalists and taking 12 prisoners. He went on to say "Many of my people has left me & gone over to the Enemy, for they think we have no army coming in & have been Deceived, as we hear nothing from you in a great while, I hope to have a line from you in what manner to act & some assurance to the people of support." The combined loyalist force in the area at the time then numbered some 200, though prior to his attack Marion had understood there were only 50. While in the area, Marion learned that the garrison at Georgetown contained 80 regulars, "with swivels and cohorns on the parapets."
Conclusion: British Victory. Casualties: American: 2k, 3w; British: 4k, 2w, 16c

November 18, 1780 at Brierley's Ferry, also Brierly's Ferry, Shirar's Ferry, Border of Fairfield and Newberry counties, S.C.

Tarleton, with his Legion Cavalry and mounted Legion infantry, and two three-pounders, was sent from the Wateree in pursuit of Sumter. On November 18, he joined the 1st Bttn. of the 71st and a mounted detachment of the 63rd who were already present at Brierly's Ferry on the Broad River. The opposite side of the ferry, however, was occupied by a 150 of Sumter's riflemen who had been sent to scout the 71st's camp. These militia Tarleton drove from their position with his cannon and infantry, at the same time taking care to conceal the green coats of his dragoons, thereby preventing Sumter of being apprised of the presence of himself and his legion.

Later in the evening, he crossed with his dragoons and the mounted Legion and 63rd at a ford a few miles downriver. He then reunited with the 71st and the artillery three miles from the ferry, and by 10 pm had camped several miles into the Dutch Fork, having received information of Sumter's being not too distant with upwards of 1,000 militia from South Carolina, North Carolina and Georgia. Conclusion: British Victory.

November 21-23, 1780 at Fort George, New York

Fort George had become a place where Tory refugees from around Rhode Island had gathered. They converted the manor house of Gen. John Smith into a base for wood cutting operations and a depot.

On November 21, Maj. Benjamin Tallmadge and 80 dismounted troopers of the 2nd Continental Dragoons left Fairfield, Connecticut in the afternoon.

On November 22, at 9:00 A.M., Tallmadge landed on Long island. Bad weather caused the Americans to postpone the attack for 24 hours.

On November 23, Tallmadge decided to not wait for the full 24 hours and started his attack in the early dawn hours. He was successful in the attack and captured Fort George, along with 54 Tories and 150 other noncombatants. Afterwards, he led a 12-man detachment and recrossed the island. They came to a supply area at Coram that contained 300 tons of hay intended for the British army and destroyed it. Later that day, Tallmadge and his detachment returned to Fairfield with the Tory prisoners.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: 1w; British: 7k&w, 54c

November 23, 1780 at Brookhaven, New York

A party of 80 dismounted troopers from the 2nd Continental Dragoons, under Maj. Benjamin Tallmadge, debarks from Fairfield, CT, and crosses Long Island Sound at night. At dawn on November 23, they storm Fort St. george (Brookhaven), guided by Tallmadge, a native of the town.

The Americans kill 7 men and seize 54 prisoners for one man wounded. They also burn 300 tons of hay intended as forage before falling back.
Conclusion: American Victory

December of 1780

December, 1780 at Hopkins' Place, South Carolina

Capt. Samuel Otterson, of the 2nd Spartan Regiment of Militia, was sent from the Union District with eight or ten men to spy on the Loyalists in the western Chester District. His patrol crossed the Broad River at Fish Dam Ford and rode to the home of Lt. Col. David Hopkins, which was deserted. Capt. Otterson noticed a fire about a quarter mile away.

He crawled up to the ridge by himself and "discovered Tories, double his strength." They must be Loyalists or they would have been at Hopkins' place. He snaked his way back to his men so he would not be seen and ordered them to approach the enemy camp the same way. They were to fire when he gave the signal.

While they were snaking into position, the leader of the Loyalists, a Capt. Moore, "who was advanced in his years," rose out of his bedroll and went to the fire to stoke it. He was on his knees blowing up a blaze when Capt. Otterson gave the signal to fire.

"A few escaped like wild turkeys." One of the Loyalists grabbed his musket and clubbed one of the Patriots. He would have smashed his skull, but another Patriot "who had just knifed his antagonist, came to the relief of the overpowered man and dispatched the Tory with his knife."
Conclusion: American Victory

December, 1780 at Kingstree, South Carolina

Col. Francis Marion's men mauled Major Robert McLeroth's 64th Regiment of British regulars.
Conclusion: American Victory

December, 1780 at Lynches Creek, South Carolina

On Lynches Creek in the southern part of Florence County, there occurred an especially provocative incident that was credited with escalating the level of violence among the inhabitants of the Pee Dee. A small scouting party of Marion's Brigade, commanded by Lt. Roger Gordon, halted for provisions and refreshments at a tavern in the neighborhood. Here they were surprised by a large force of Tories under an officer by the name of Captain Butler, particularly noted for his ferocity.

The building was set on fire and Gordon's men surrendered upon being offered quarter, but as soon as they had grounded their arms, Butler and his Tories butchered the entire party. When the Loyalist forces of the region surrendered to General Marion at Burch's Mill in 1782, Butler presented himself and claimed the same protection that was being extended to other Tories. Marion granted him clemency over the complaints and threats of his own officers, who protested that "to defend such a wretch was an insult to humanity."
Conclusion: British Victory

December, 1780 at Sandy River, South Carolina

In early December, Col. Thomas Brandon and Major Joseph McJunkin of the 2nd Spartan Regiment of Militia gathered up what men they could and posted themselves at Love's Ford on the west side of the Broad River to prevent communications between Lt. General Charles, Lord Cornwallis and the Loyalists west of the Broad River.

While there, a scouting party, under the command of Capt. John McCool, was ordered to cross the Broad River and attack the Loyalists, led by Capt. Manning Gose, on the Sandy River. Capt. McCool was defeated and Daniel McJunkin was captured and taken to Winnsborough.

Col. Thomas Brandon pursued the Loyalists and fell in with a small party of them - killing three and wounding three. The rest got away with their prisoners.

Col. Brandon sent a flag to Lord Cornwallis and proposed to exchange Loyalist Col. Fanning for Daniel McJunkin, but Lord Cornwallis declined and sent him to the jail in Camden. McJunkin remained there until April of 1781, when he and some others made their escape, but nearly perished for want of food before they reached their comrades.
Conclusion: American Victory

December 4 (also given as 1st and 2nd December), 1780 at Clermont, Kershaw County, South Carolina

On December 4, Col. William Washington and his dragoon force went to investigate a report that said Col. Henry Rugeley and a force of Tories was located at Rugeley's Mills. Rugeley's Mills was located at Cleremont. When Washington arrived at Cleremont, he discovered the Tory force was inside of a fortified barn that was surrounded by a ditch and abatis. Washington did not have any artillery so he ordered his men to open fire on the barn with their muskets. This did not do much damage. Washington then decided to try the Quaker gun trick. He had his men make a fake cannon out of a pine log and move it into view of the Tories.

With this completed, he sent a request for the Tories to surrender or be blown up with the "gun". Rugeley came out with a number of Tories and accepted Washington's surrender demand. Once all of the Tories were gathered together, they were marched back to the American camp. Rugeley had 112 loyalists under his command in stockade house. Kirkwood gives the date of the surrender as 2 December, stating that the British lost "one Col. One Majr. and 107 privates." The men taken were apparently paroled, and the fort at Rugeley's was burned down. Washington and his men then returned to Hanging Rock where Continental the light infantry were, and from there to New Providence.

Thomas Anderson: “[November] 28 Received orders to hold ourselves in readiness to march at a moments warning; accordingly left our tents standing, with all our sick behind, and marched to Twelve Mile Creek – this creek is the line between North and South Carolina. From thence we marched to Hanging Rock, where the Infantry remained whilst Colonel Washington, with his Cavalry went down to Colonel Rudgely's and with the deception of a pine log took the garrison, consisting of one Colonel, one Major, three Captains, Four Lieutenants, and one hundred rank and file. From thence returned to camp with the prisoners, and arrived on the 2nd of December. 100 [miles].” See also Kirkwood's almost identical entry at 28 November.Conclusion: American Victory

December 11 (also given as the 4th and 12th), 1780 in McCormick County,, South Carolina

After Col. Elijah Clark had brought many of the whig families of upper Georgia to the sanctuary of the Watauga settlements, he and his men (a number of whom were at King's Mountain and Blackstocks) returned to Georgia.

Sometime in December he was again in the field and with Colonel Benjamin Few, Few having seniority over Clark. With their combined force of 500 Georgia and South Carolina militia, (the South Carolinians under Lieut. Col. James McCall and Maj. Samuel Hammond, who were with Clark), they advanced on the Long Canes Creek settlement just southwest of Ninety-Six. Many, if not most, of their men were mounted.

Upon their arrival at Long Canes they sought to enlist recruits from the settlement which had a strong whig leaning. Brig. Gen. Robert Cunningham, the loyalist commander in the area, sent to Cruger for support. Cruger dispatched Lieut. Col. Isaac Allen with 200 New Jersey Volunteers, 200 loyalist militia, and 50 dragoons. It is not clear how many Cunningham himself had prior to the reinforcement, so that his original numbers then may have been negligible. Initially, the loyalists were forced to retreat in the face of an attack by Clark and McCall with about 100 whigs. Clark, who was wounded, then called to Few to support him, but Few refused or was unable to do so, nor did he tell Clark he had decided to withdraw.

As a result Clark and McCall were driven back by four times their number. Few and Clark were subsequently pursued by Allen. Clark's casualties in both the skirmish and the pursuit were about 21 killed and wounded (14 of these in the actual engagement), while the Loyalists lost 3. Clark's wound, which was at first thought mortal, kept him from further fighting till early March 1781 when he joined Pickens in North Carolina. During the period of his recuperation, his men were commanded by Maj. John Cunningham.
Conclusion: British Victory.

December 14, 1780 Nelson's Ferry, Clarendon-Orangeburg County area, South Carolina

About mid December, due to plans for the second invasion of North Carolina, and additional British troops being thereby drawn outside the state, and, as well, Marion's success in the field, Balfour changed the Charleston-Camden supply route from the shorter route of Nelson's Ferry and the Santee Road, to the much longer one going from Monck's Corner to Friday's Ferry on the Congaree River.

Balfour ordered that boats on the Santee stay below Murry's Ferry, however, one ship which did not receive the directive in time was captured and burned at Nelson's Ferry by Marion's men on 14 December. Although the 64th Regiment was posted at Nelson's Ferry at the time of the raid, their numbers were not sufficient to pursue Marion's mounted men.
Conclusion: American Victory

December 14, 1780 at Indian Creek, South Carolina

Col. Joseph Hayes, Capt. Thomas Blassingame, and fifty Patriot militiamen attacked a force of twenty-five of the Dutch Fork Loyalist Militia, under the command of Major Moses Buffington, who had been posted at Col. Dugan's place on Indian Creek, four miles south of the Enoree River.

Major Buffington and three of his men were wounded and seven or eight were captured.
Conclusion: American Victory

December 14, 1780 at Singleton's Mill, South Carolina

Skirmish, Major John James of the Kingstree Regiment of Militia vs. Major Robert McLeroth
Conclusion: Inconclusive

December 16, 1780 at Bear Island, South Carolina

Unknown Patriots vs. detachment of unknown unit of Georgia Loyalist Militia.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

December 16, 1780 at Boyd's Creek, Tennessee

Col. John Sevier leads 300 Tennessee militia against the Cherokee at Boyd's Creek, killing 28 for the loss of three wounded.
Conclusion: American Victory

December 25 or 27, 1780 at Georgetown, Georgetown County, South Carolina

Having been sent by Marion from Indiantown, On December 27, a reconnaissance force, commanded by Col. Peter Horry, Captain John Baxter and Sergeant McDonald with 30 (British accounts say 50) was sent to determine the strength of the British forces in Georgetown. Later that morning, they entered a house to request some food, While inside, a small group of Queen's Rangers under Lieut. John Wilson (Bass says Cornett Merritt) came charging down the road towards the house.

The Patriots hopped on their horses and headed to the British force. The British realized that they were outnumbered and headed back to Georgetown. As the Rangers retreated to Georgetown, a mounted force under Maj. Micajah Ganey came out to counterattack Horry's men at "The Camp" (not far outside of Georgetown.), but were beaten back and Ganey wounded. The wound prevented Ganey from returning to the field to fight till April 1781. Wilson was also wounded in the encounter, but not seriously.
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: unknown; British: 16c

December 26, 1780 at Cheraw, South Carolina

Major General Nathanael Greene ordered Brigadier General (Pro Tempore) Henry William Harrington (NC Salisbury District Brigade of Militia) to attack Lt. Col. Robert Gray and British Major Thomas Fraser at Cheraw. Major General Greene also sent orders for Col. Francis Marion to join in on this attack, but Col. Marion did not get the orders in time.

Little more is known except that Brigadier General (Pro Tempore) Henry William Harrington ended up taking the small town of Cheraw away from the British and Loyalists there. What happened to them is currently unknown. Brigadier General Harrington established a POW camp there, where many captured British and Loyalists were sent soon after Cheraw was seized by the Patriots on this date.
Conclusion: American Victory

December 28, 1780 at Black River Ferry Road, South Carolina

Having been sent by Col. Francis Marion from Indiantown on December 27, a reconnaissance force, commanded by Lt. Col. Peter Horry, Captain John Baxter, Capt. John Postell, and Sergeant McDonald with 33 horsemen (British accounts say 50) was sent to determine the strength of the British forces in Georgetown. Late that night they settled at "The Camp," not far out of Georgetown.

The next morning, they entered a house to request some food, and while inside, a small group of Queen's Rangers under Lt. John Wilson (Bass says Cornett Merritt) came charging down the road towards the house. The Patriots hopped on their horses and headed towards the British force. The British realized that they were outnumbered and quickly headed back to Georgetown.

As the Queen's Rangers retreated to Georgetown, a mounted Loyaliost force under Major Micajah Gainey came out to counter-attack Lt. Col. Horry's men at "The Camp" (not far outside of Georgetown), but were beaten back and Major Gainey was wounded. The wound prevented Major Gainey from returning to the field to fight until April of 1781. Lt. Wilson was also wounded in the encounter, but not seriously.
Conclusion: American Victory

December 29, 1780 Kingstree, Williamsburg County, South Carolina

Campbell sent Cornet Merritt with some Queen's Rangers who made a quick raid of the Kingstree area. Afterward, Merritt and his men returned to Georgetown.
Conclusion: British Victory.

December 30, 1780 at Hammond's Store (Williamson's Plantation), Laurens County, South Carolina

To encourage the British support in the upcountry of South Carolina, 250 loyalists under Col. Francis Waters, from Savannah, were sent into the Fair Forest area, at a location 15 to 20 miles south of Morgan's camp on the Pacelot. Col William Washington with 75 of his dragoons and 200 mounted South Carolina militia under Lieut. Col. Joseph Hayes and Lieut. Col. James McCall was sent to attack him on December 29. Learning of their approach Waters fell back to Hammond's Store where on the 30th Washington caught up with and routed him.

The Loyalists were beaten back and began a retreat. During the 7-mile retreating action, the Loyalists suffered heavy casualties. Morgan reported to Greene the Loyalists as losing 150 killed or wounded and 40 captured, a number probably indicating that many of Waters men were needlessly slaughtered. However, it seems likely that the vindictiveness sprang from the militia, with scores to settle, rather than Washington's dragoons as such.

Thomas Young: “The next engagement I was in was at Hammond's Store, on Bush River, somewhere near Ninety-Six. Gen. Morgan was encamped at Grindall's Shoals to keep the Tories in check. He dispatched Col. Washington with a detachment of militia, and about seventy dragoons, to attack a body of Tories, who had been plundering the Whigs. We came up with them at Hammond's store; in fact, we picked up several scattering ones, within about three miles of the place, from whom we learned all about their position. When we came in sight, we perceived that the Tories had formed in line on the brow of the hill opposite to us. We had a long hill to descend and another to rise. Col. Washington and his dragoons gave a shout, drew swords, and charged down the hill like madmen. The Tories fled In every direction without firing a gun. We took a great many prisoners and killed a few.”
Conclusion: American Victory. Casualties: American: unknown; British: 150k&w, 40c

December 29, 30 or 31, 1780 at Williams' Fort, also Fort Williams or Williams Plantation, Newberry or possibly Laurens County, South Carolina

Brig. Gen.. Robert Cunningham with about 100 to 150 loyalists occupied Fort Williams, situated a few miles northwest of the main fort in the region, Ninety-Six. Washington sent a detachment of 40 dragoons under Cornel Simmons and some mounted militia under Lieut. Col. Joseph Hayes to take the fort. When they arrived, Simmons and Hayes demanded the fort's surrender. Cunningham asked for some time to consult with his officers.

During this time, some of the Loyalists slipped out of the back of the fort and into the woods. A few of them were spotted and killed, but most escaped. According to one account, Cunningham and most of his men were able to slip out a rear exit, though a few loyalists were taken. Another version states that the fort was evacuated before Simmons and Hayes arrived. Food and other stores were taken, though the fort itself was left intact.

Seymour: "On the 31st December Colonel Washington was detached to Fort William in order to surprise some Tories that lay there; and meeting with a party of them near said place, upon which ensued a smart engagement, the latter having one hundred and sixty men killed dead, and thirty-three made prisoners."
Conclusion: American Victory.