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American Revolutionary War Battles

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List of Revolutionary War Battles for 1775

List of Revolutionary War Battles, Raids & Skirmishes for 1775

Quill and Pen General Gage advised his government that not less than 20,000 men would be necessary for the work at hand, yet he proceeded after some delay to suppress warlike preparations near Boston.

His first determined effort brought about the skirmish of April 19 in which a detachment sent to seize some military stores collected at Concord suffered heavily at Lexington, Concord and other places, at the hands of the surrounding militia.

This encounter roused the New England colonies, and in a few days about 16,000 of their townsmen marched in small bands upon Boston to protest against and resist further incursions; and in this irregular body we have the nucleus of the colonial forces which carried the war in New England through.

No one knows who fired the first shot at Lexington (the "shot heard around the world"), but King George, anxious to conciliate the colonist, publicly insisted throughout the following year that the regulars (British) had fired first and that "the colonist were defending themselves within their rights as Englishmen." Colonial leaders repeated their professions of loyalty to his majesty and the principles of the English constitution.

Conscious, nevertheless, that a struggle impended, they instantly sent word to all the other colonies, and all responded to the alarm. Fights broke out between loyalist and rebels as the insurrection spread through the area surrounding Boston and groups of rebels harassed "redcoats" wherever they appeared. Slowly, rebel camps appeared around Boston and soon the British were bottled into the area of Boston harbor; a beginning to the Siege of Boston.

Britain extended its precautions and preparations. General Sir William Howe, General Sir Henry Clinton, and General John Burgoyne were sent at once with reinforcements. General Charles Cornwallis followed later. The force at Boston was increased. The Continental Congress met in Philadelphia and appointed George Washington to head a continental army.

In June the British attempted to break out from the cramped confines of their coastal perimeter resulting in the Battle of Bunker Hill (the battle was fought on nearby Breed's Hill). Technically, it was a British victory but they suffered heavily, losing one-third of their force in storming the hastily constructed lines of the rebels.

Throughout the colonies rebel units began to take up arms. In Virginia British governor, Lord Dunmore offered freedom to slaves who would fight for Britain. From 1,000 to 2,000 blacks joined him and in December, the patriots defeated a force led by Dunmore at Great Bridge, south of Norfolk.

Meanwhile, Captain Benedict Arnold arrived in Cambridge with a company of militiamen and suggested that he be allowed to take Fort Ticonderoga, the key to the passage of Lakes George and Champlain to Canada, to obtain cannon and other war supplies.

Benjamin Church promoted Arnold to colonel and gave him the authority to proceed, but Arnold learned that Ethan Allen had already received the same assignment from Connecticut so Arnold volunteered to join Allen's forces.

The mission was successful, Arnold returned a hero for his exploits and, Washington, who had arrived during Arnold's absence, dispatched him to attack Quebec, Canada.

Arriving in early December, Arnold found the defenses of Sir Guy Carleton formidable and waited for reinforcements. General Richard Montgomery soon arrived from Montreal and together they attacked December 8-31, 1775. Montgomery was killed in the action and Arnold was wounded in the leg, but Arnold continued in Canada until May 1776, when he was forced to withdraw.

On July 3, Washington took command of the American forces at Cambridge and began to train and organize them. He also proceeded with what is known as the Siege of Boston, which was marked by no special incident, and closed with the American seizure of Dorchester Heights and the evacuation of the town by the British on March 17, 1776, with Howe sailing to Halifax, Nova Scotia.

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April of 1775

April 21, 1775 at Charleston, South Carolina

Having resolved on rebellion, the people of Charlestown were not afraid to commit acts of legal treason. They justly considered that "all statutes of allegiance were repealed on the plains of Lexington, and the laws of self-preservation left to operate in full force."

They accordingly concerted a plan to secure the arms and ammunition in the city, and on the night of the 21st of April they seized upon all the munitions of war they could find. This was the first overt act of resistance, and at that hour began the Revolution, in earnest, in South Carolina.

In one of the first acts of the Revolution, the Secret Committee on the night of April 21, 1775 broke into the magazines at Hobcaw and at Robert Cochran's on Charlestown Neck, as well as into the Armory in the upper part of the State House and seized arms and ammunition.

Thomas Moultrie wrote,

"A few gentlemen went to Capt. Cochran (the King's store-keeper) and demanded the keys of him: he said 'He could give them up, neither could he hinder them from breaking open the doors'; this hint was enough; there was no time for hesitation; and that night a number of gentlemen went and broke open the doors."

Eight hundred stands of small arms, two hundred cutlasses, and all the cartridge boxes were seized. The next day, the powder stores in Hobcaw Magazine were seized, 170 pounds were taken. Another 600 pounds were taken from the shipyard there. Lt. Governor William Bull offered a reward of £100 for apprehending the offenders, but they were never caught.
Conclusion: American Victory

May of 1775

May 5, 1775 at Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts

Capture of HMS Falcon
Conclusion: American Victory

May 12, 1775 at Crown Point, New York

On May 12, Col. Ethan Allen had sent an expedition, led by Lt. Col. Seth Warner, his second-in-command. The expedition was to capture Crown Point, located on west shore of Lake Champlain.

Crown Point began as a trading post but was later started to be built as a large fort by the British. It was garrisoned but the construction was never completed. The American force captured the disabled British post without any resistance.

They took 9 enlisted British soldiers prisoner, along with some cannon, and 10 women and children.
Conclusion: American Victory

May 14-18, 1775 at St. Johns, Quebec

On May 10, a day before the Battle of Fort Tigonderoga, a detachment of Americans were ordered to advance and capture the town of Skenesboro.

On May 14, the detachment from Skenesboro reported to Col. Benedict Arnold. Arnold gathered 50 of his men and advanced to St. Johns on a captured schooner from Skenesboro. Col. Ethan Allen and 60 men were behind Arnold in a bateaux.

On May 17, early that morning, Arnold and his men surprised the 15-man British garrison near St. Johns. The British soldiers were captured along with the British sloop HMS George III, several military stores, 4 bateaux, destroyed 5 bateaux, evacuated the prisoners, and headed back to Ticonderoga. When they were about 15 miles away, Arnold met Allen.

Allen had ignored Arnold's advice and decided that he would hold and occupy St. Johns. Just after dark, Allen landed and made plans to set up an ambush for the 200-man British relief column that was heading there from Chambly, 12 miles away.

On May 18, before the British arrived, Allen decided to withdraw his men back to Ticonderoga. After he had recrossed the river, he was attacked by the British relief column before dawn. After a short skirmish, Allen escaped with his men.
Conclusion: British Victory

May 21, 1775 at Grape Island, Massachusetts

General Gage and Admiral Graves, seeking to obtain fresh provisions for the British troops in Boston, and fodder for the livestock, cast their eyes on the many islands in Boston Bay.

One of these islands was Grape (or Grafs) Island, laying in the southeast part of Boston Bay. The island was owned by Elisha Leavitt of Hingham, Massachusetts and had hay, livestock and a barn on it. Leavitt was a Loyalist and apparently sold or gave the hay and livestock on the island to the British army.

On Sunday morning, 21 May, Graves sent out two sloops and an armed schooner (or four sloops) to obtain the hay,3 with about 100 soldiers aboard.4 These sailed down toward Grape Island, in the southeastern part of the bay. This little fleet anchored before Great Hill. Rumors soon spread ashore that Weymouth was being burned.

The militia began to collect, nearly 2000 of them, but the real target was the hay on Grape Island. General John Thomas received the news at his headquarters at Roxbury about 1000. He ordered out three companies to observe the British.

When they arrived on the scene the British were busily gathering the hay. The militia moved to a point near the island, but almost beyond range, and began firing at the British.

The Americans had no boats and couldn’t cross over, so the British largely ignored the firing. Finally, one sloop fired a few swivel guns at the crowd, but the shots were too high. After a few hours of this desultory activity the tide came in. Some lighters, grounded on the mainland, floated. About the same time a little sloop came down from Hingham.

The Americans crowded into the craft and set out for the island. As they stormed ashore on the nearest point the British hastily departed from the other end and sailed away.

When the British passed by Horse Neck the sloops fired heavily on the crowd of militia, which returned the fire. The Americans burned the rest of the hay, about eighty tons, and a barn, and removed the livestock. Three British were reportedly wounded in the action.

This minor affair scarcely deserves its name but it marked the beginning of the “Provision War” in the harbor islands.

June of 1775

June 6, 1775 at New York City, New York

On June 6, members of the Sons of Liberty, led by Lt. Col. Marinus Willett, captured 5 wagon loads of arms that a group of British soldiers tried to sneak out of New York City.

June 11, 1775 at Machias, Maine

On June 2, Ichabod Jones, a Boston Loyalist, arrived at machias aboard an armed schooner, the HMS Margaretta, accompanied by 2 transport sloops, HMS Polly and HMS Unity.

They were there to collect some lumber for the British garrison in Boston. The local townspeople were determined to prevent the British from getting the lumber. They made a plan to capture the British officers while they were in church.

On June 11, offended by his manner, the townspeople seized Jones. Midshipman James Moore, commander of the Margaretta, and some of his officers escaped through the windows in the church and returned safely to their ship.

They then threatened to bombard the town unless Jones was surrendered from the town. Meanwhile, a group of 40 volunteers organized a pursuit, led by Jeremiah O'Brien and Benjamin Foster, and captured the Unity.

On June 12, the group of volunteers captured the Margaretta. A chase had ended with a brisk skirmish in which 7 men were killed or wounded on each side. The midshipman, having freed and anchored the schooner the previous day, attempted to escape. The group of townspeople pursued the schooner in one of the captured sloops.

Once they caught up with the Margaretta, they fired upon and boarded the ship. Once aboard, they fatally wounded Moore. He became the only casualty of the Revolutionary War's first naval engagement.
Conclusion: American Victory

July of 1775

July 8, 1775 at Boston Neck, Massachusetts

On July 8, Continental Army volunteers led by Maj. Benjamin Tupper and Capt. John Crane attack a British outpost at Boston Neck.

The Americans routed the British guard, and burned down the guardhouse. Similar small probes continued through July.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 9, 1775 at Bloody Point, South Carolina

The South Carolina Council of Safety learned that a gunpowder shipment was on the way to Savannah. The gunpowder would be used to supply the Indians. The council sent 2 barges to Bloody Point to intercept the gunpowder shipment. Capts. John Joyner and John Barnwell, of the 1st South Carolina Regiment, commanded the barges.

When they arrived at Bloody Point, they got a schooner, the Liberty, outfitted with 10 carraige guns, commanded by Capt. Oliver Bowen, to join the barges. The British shipment was escorted by the armed schooner, HMS Phillippa, which was commanded by Capt. Richard Maitland.

On July 7, the 2 British ships anchored 9 miles from Tybee Point and waited for a pilot to carry them into the Savannah River.

On July 8, the Liberty spotted the British ships and stopped 4 miles from them. The 3 American ships waited there until the following day.

On July 9, at 2:00 A.M., the pilot arrived and began guiding the British ships to the Tybee Bar. Maitland saw the Liberty closing in on them.

At 4:00 A.M., the Liberty fired 2 muskets at the Phillippa and ordered Maitland to identify himself. The Liberty followed the British ships and anchored beside them that night.

On July 10, the Phillippa was ordered to to anchor at Cockspur Island. The island had an encampment of the South Carolina Provincials. They rode out in boats and surrounded the British ships.

They managed to capture 16,000 lbs. of gunpowder, and "all of the bar-lead, sheet-lead, Indian trading arms, and shot, that were on board."
Conclusion: American Victory

July 12, 1775 at Fort Charlotte, South Carolina

In June, the Council of Safety in Charlestown ordered Maj. James Mayson, commander of Fort Ninety-Six, to capture Fort Charlotte. Fort Charlotte was located just west of Ninety-Six and was on the Savannah River.

On July 12, the American force of Ranger companies captured the fort without any bloodshed or opposition. The only occupants of the fort were Capt. George Whitefield, his family, and a few men of the garrison.

The Rangers also managed to capture 1,050 lbs. of gunpowder, 18 cannon, 15 muskets, 83 casks of musket cartridges, 2,521 musket balls, and 343 iron cannonballs. Mayson and the 3rd South Carolina Regiment would be stationed at Fort Charlotte to command the interior.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 17, 1775 at Ninety-Six, South Carolina

On July 17, Capt. Moses Kirkland was the commander of Ninety-Six. He decided to change sides of loyalty. He invited in a force of Loyalist militia, commanded by Col. Fletchall, to raid the fort.

Fletchall sent 200 militia from his main force to capture the fort. When they arrived at the fort, Kirkland talked his garrison to desert the fort. The Loyalist militia took over the fort and threw Capt. James Mayson in the fort's jail.
Conclusion: British Victory

July 18, 1775 at Fort Johnston, North Carolina

In early 1775, local native Robert Howe began training the Brunswick County Militia, much to the dismay of Royal Governor Josiah Martin. As the growing rebellion heated up, Governor Martin fled from the governor's mansion in New Bern and initially sought refuge within the walls of Fort Johnston.

When he learned of a planned Patriot attack on the fort, he then moved on board the British sloop of war Cruizer, just offshore of what is today modern Southport.

Governor Martin left Capt. John Collett in charge of the fort, but he told Martin that he would not be able to defend it with the few men he had. Governor Martin ordered the guns to be dismantled and moved to a position on the Cape Fear River that could be protected by the British sloop-of-war HMS Cruizer.

On the night of July 18, Cornelius Harnett, Col. Robert Howe and his Brunswick County Regiment of Militia, along with Col. John Ashe and his New Hanover County Regiment of Militia, marched into the abandoned fort and burned it in full view of Royal Governor Josiah Martin aboard the HMS Cruizer. Five hundred men were observed inspecting the fort the next day, but the Patriots could not get to the heavy guns along the shore since they were within range of HMS Cruizer's guns.

Col. Robert Howe and his men remained at the fort for a short time but did not rebuild it. Capt. John Collett, no longer having a fort to command, sailed to Boston where he raised a company in the Royal Fencible American Regiment.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 20, 1775 at New York City, New York

On July 20, the Patriot force made a surprise raid at Turtle Bay. They seized the royal stores and their guard detachments. The captured stores were sent to the Patriot forces at Boston and on Lake Champlain.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 21, 1775 at Great Brewster Island, Massachusetts

On July 21, a party of American soldiers, led by Maj. Joseph Vose, set out in some whaleboats for Nantasket Point. When they reached their destination, they drove off the British guard and destroyed the lighthouse on Great Brewster Island.
Conclusion: American Victory

July 31, 1775 at Great Brewster Island, Massachusetts

On July 31, during the night, Maj. Benjamin Tupper led a force of 300 men in whaleboats to stop some repair work on the island's lighthouse. They were to also capture the British guard detachment and a group of workers.

The lighthouse was damaged from the Battle of Great Brewster Island 10 days earlier. The American force landed on the island and engaged the British, killing or capturing the entire 32-man British detachment, a subaltern, and 10 carpenters.

Tupper's escape was delayed because of missing one tide. He shortly evacuated all of the British prisoners while only sustaining 2 casualties of his own force.
Conclusion: American Victory

AUGUST OF 1775

August 1, 1775 at Senecca Town, South Carolina

On August 1, a detachment from the 3rd South Carolina Rangers had been patrolling near Seneca Town. They stopped for the night and set up camp. They failed to set up any security for the camp.

A party of Cherokee Indians surprised the Rangers with a brief firefight. The Rangers were driven away from the camp.
Conclusion: British Victory

August 1, 1775 at New Richmond, South Carolina

On August 2, nearly 100 "Liberty Boys" called upon several gentlemen to force them to swear to uphold the Continental Association. William Thomson fled to the comparative safety of Alexander Cameron's residence at the Cherokee town of Keowee. Thomas Brown, a new arrival to the town of Augusta, Georgia, who would play a major part in the history of the Indian Department later in the war, was not so lucky.

Brown was staying at New Richmond in South Carolina, at the residence of John Gordon. Already known as a leader of those with Loyalist sentiments, Brown was targeted specifically by the rebel mob that came to New Richmond to demand that he sign the Association. He began the confrontation warily, asking to be excused from joining.

The committeemen demanded to know Brown's reasons for refusing to take the oath of the Association. Brown said that he did not want to take up arms against the country that had given him being, but on the other hand he did not want to fight those among whom he intended to spend the rest of his days. They replied that the oath required neither action.

Brown admitted that the obligation to take up arms was not expressly mentioned, but it was implied. The Association required obedience to any measure ordained by Congress; the use of arms was a distinct possibility. Furthermore, Brown had, as Magistrate, recently taken the oath of allegiance to the Crown and, as a man of honor, could not take another oath in opposition to it.

This debate on the front porch of Gordon's house at New Richmond had counterparts elsewhere. Few are as well chronicled as this one between a lone Loyalist and nearly one-hundred Sons of Liberty. The crowd began to grow impatient. Their spokesmen told Brown plainly that he could not remain neutral; if he was not with them he was against them.

Brown then replied that they could not deprive him of the privilege of thinking what he thought. He then went inside the house. The Patriots, frustrated so far, threatened to destroy the property. At that point, Brown put his pistols in his pockets, stepped onto the porch again, and demanded to know what the crowd intended to do. They told him plainly that they intended to drag him to Augusta and force him to subscribe to the Articles of Association. Brown said that if they were for public liberty, they ought to be for private liberty and allow him to live in peace. At that point, about fifty of the mob left New Richmond.

The rest, however, became more agitated and moved toward Brown in a threatening manner. Brown warned that the first person to touch him must be ready to "abide by the consequences." Six or eight drew their swords and rushed at him. Brown's first pistol misfired, but with the second he shot "their Ringleader" (Chesty Bostick) through the foot.

When the Patriots grabbed his pistols, Brown drew his sword: "I parried off their repeated lunges and kept them at bay for some time," his narrative continued. But a "cowardly miscreant" came up behind him and hit him in the head with a rifle butt, fracturing his skull.

Brown was carried off toward Augusta in a semi-conscious state; his house was ransacked. He was tied to a tree and burning pieces of lightwood were thrust under his feet. His hair was stripped off with knives, he was scalped in three or four places, and his legs were tarred and burned so badly that he lost two toes and could not walk properly for several months.

Brown was exhibited in a cart from the head of town to the east side of Augusta. An acquaintance, Dr. Andrew Johnson, attended to Brown. He left Augusta the next morning with the connivance of a friendly guard, and made his way to Moses Kirkland's camp at Ninety-Six and later to Savannah.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 7, 1775 at St. Augustine, Florida

Capt. Clement Lampriere of Mount Pleasant left Port Royal on his armed sloop Commerce and captured the British brigantine Betsy off St. Augustine with 11,000 lbs. of gunpowder.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 14, 1775 in Bermuda

On August 14, Patriot ships raided Bermuda. They captured its forts and managed to carry off all of the powder in their magazines.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 24, 1775 at New York City, New York

On August 24, around midnight, Capt. John Lamb, under orders from the New York Provincial Congress, began dismantling the cannons in Battery Park. They were removing the cannons to place them at a safe site. Capt. George Vandeput, of the HMS Asia, sent a barge load of his British troops to investigate.

They fired a shot to warn Vandeput that something was going on with the Americans. Lamb's men fired on the American barge, killing 1 man. The HMS Asia opened fire on Battery Park and alarms sounded on shore.

Expecting their city to be attacked and pillaged, many residents fled, the beginning of a general exodus to New Jersey and Long Island.
Conclusion: British Victory

August 26-28, 1775 at Cambridge, Massachusetts

On August 26, Gen. George Washington sent Brig. Gen. John Sullivan with a fatigue unit of 1,200 men, accompanied by a guard of 2,400 men (including 400 Pennsylvania riflemen) to fortify Ploughed Hill. The hill would provide a position commanding the Mystic River and a clear shot at British forces on Bunker Hill.

On August 27, at daylight, 2 floating batteries and one on Bunker Hill, began a daylong shelling of the Americans.

Sullivan had only one cannon, but it sank one of the floating batteries and incapacitated the other one. No other fighting ensued.
Conclusion: American Victory

August 30, 1775 at Stonington, Connecticut

On August 30, the British Navy began a bombardment of Stonington. There were 2 people killed in town and a number of houses were destroyed by the naval gunfire.
Conclusion: British Victory

September of 1775

September 5, 1775 at Ile aux Noix, Quebec

On September 5, having joined Brig. Gen. Richard Montgomery, Maj. Gen. Philip Schuyler ordered his force to continue its advance. Leaving behind supplies in order to facilitate their march, the American force embarked again on the Richelieu River.

Going ashore for about 1 1/2 miles from the fort at St. John's, the Americans attempted a flanking movement and were ambushed by 100 Indians, led by Capt. Tice, a New York Tory. The Americans finally drove off the Indians while suffering 8 killed themselves.

During the night, warned by an informant that he cannot take the fort, Schuyler fell back to his encampment at Ile aux Noix.
Conclusion: British Victory

September 5, 1775 at St. Johns, Quebec

On September 5, an advanced detachment of Maj. Gen. Philip Schuyler's force was ambushed near St. Johns by an Indian force, commanded by New York loyalist.

The Patriots managed to drive off the Indians in a bush fight. The Americans suffered 8 killed and 8 wounded.
Conclusion: American Victory

September 10, 1775 at St. Johns, Quebec

On September 10, Maj. Gen. Philip Schuyler had fortified this island encampment and welcomed 700 reinforcements. He launched a second effort to attack the fort at St. John's from Ile aux Noix, Quebec.

For this attack, he had 800 men with him. Schuyler's men, fearful of another ambush like the one on September 5, broke and ran when they were threatened.

His second effort to take the fort also failed. Once again, the American force had to retreat back to Ile aux Noix.
Conclusion: British Victory

September 15, 1775 at Fort Johnson, South Carolina

In fear of the patrolling British ships around Charlestown harbor, the Council of Safety ordered Col. William Moultrie of the SC 2nd Regiment to take Fort Johnson from the small British garrison there. The British were apparently tipped off and they removed all the guns from their platforms and hastily escaped.

Col. Moultrie ordered Capt. Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Capt. Bernard Elliott, and Capt. Francis Marion - each with fifty men - to go take the fort. This detachment was commanded by Lt. Col. Isaac Motte. At around 11:00 PM., his forces gathered at Gadsden's Wharf, boarded the Carolina & Georgia packet, and sailed for James Island, landing a little above the fort. Although a short distance, the trip took more than an hour. The packet only had two small boats that could land only fifteen men at a time. The result was that the landing was only effected by the men wading through the water up to their waists, and September 15 dawned when only Capt. Pinckney's and Capt. Elliott's companies were ashore. It was determined not to wait upon Capt. Marion's men, but to move at once upon the fort. This was done with eagerness, but when the forlorn hope advanced up the glacis, the gates were found open and the cannon dismounted. Of the British garrison, only the gunner Walker and four men were taken prisoner.

Col. Moultrie's orders to Lt. Col. Motte were "to defend the fort from all parties that may attempt to land, but if the man-of-war [the HMS Tamar offshore] should attack the fort, and you find you cannot make a stand against her, you are to withdraw your men to some place of safety, out of reach of her guns; but you are to take care not to suffer any parties to land with the intent to damage the fort."

That same date, a detachment of the Charles Town Artillery under Capt. Thomas Heyward, Jr. moved to Fort Johnson with "gin and tackles and had three cannon mounted immediately." Now, the fort could be defended against British vessels.

Soon, the British sloop-of-war HMS Cherokee arrived off Fort Johnson. The Council of Safety was determined to have a way to signal the British, out of pride, that the Patriots were in fact in possession of Fort Sullivan. Since there was no specified national or state flag, Col. William Moultrie was given the assignment to design an appropriate flag for South Carolina. Both the troops of the SC 1st Regiment and SC 2nd Regiment wore blue uniforms with a silver crescent, therefore, Col. Moultrie's flag was a field of blue with a silver crescent in the dexter corner. This was the first American flag ever displayed in South Carolina.

When this flag was hoisted above Fort Sullivan the men were delighted but "it gave some uneasiness to our timid friends who were looking forward to a reconciliation - they said it had the appearance of a declaration of war, and Capt. Thoroughbred, in the HMS Tamar lying in Rebellion Road [Charlestown Harbor] would look upon it as an insult, and a flag of defiance, and would certainly attack the fort." That attack never came.

When Lord Campbell (the last Royal Governor of the province of South Carolina), aboard the HMS Tamar, learned that the Patriots held Fort Johnson, he sent his secretary, Mr. Innis, by boat to the fort to demand "by what authority we had taken possession of His Majesty's fort." Lt. Col. Isaac Motte responded to Mr. Innis that it was taken under orders of the Council of Safety. Mr. Innis promptly made a bow, and returned to the HMS Tamar.

At dawn of September 17, the Tamar and the Cherokee with the packet Swallow sailed up and presented themselves within point-blank range of the fort. An engagement was expected, but the vessels made only a demonstration and returned to their former anchorage off Charlestown harbor.

The Council of Safety felt that this small garrison would not be enough, so they again ordered Col. Moultrie to send additional forces to reinforce Fort Sullivan. Col. Moultrie sent Capt. Benjamin Cattel, Capt. Adam McDonald, and Capt. John Barnwell - all of the SC 1st Regiment and each with fifty men - this detachment was commanded by Maj. Owen Roberts. On September 17, Maj. Roberts loaded his troops aboard two schooners at Gadsden's Wharf and sailed for James Island. He was ordered "not to suffer any boats to obstruct your passage."
Conclusion: American Victory

September 18, 1775 at Sullivan's Island, South Carolina

Patriot troops from Fort Moultrie attacked and seized a small vessel taking supplies from Charlestown to two British ships at anchor off Sullivan’s Island. The Patriots seized 21 casks of water, one case and two bottles of liquor, and some brown sugar.

In response to this action, the British vessels Tamar and Scorpion blockaded Charlestown harbor and five days later seized the Charlestown merchant vessel Polly, owned by Benjamin and Isaac Huger.

Sailors that had been captured earlier during the Patriot capture of Fort Johnson warned that a bomb ketch would be coming to Charlestown to attack Fort Johnson and then burn the town. This was a realistic threat since the British did burn Charlestown, Massachusetts. The Patriot government of South Carolina declared a state of emergency.
Conclusion: American Victory

September 28, 1775 at Cumming's Point, South Carolina

When 30 Patriots attempted to go to Cumming's Point in three canoes, the HMS Tamar moved to intercept them. However, the wind died and the HMS Tamar beached on a sandbar. Capt. Thornborough used the anchor and kedge to haul the ship into a better wind and came within range of the Patriots. He fired 6-pounders with round shot and the Patriots quickly reversed course.
Conclusion: British Victory

October of 1775

October 7, 1775 at Bristol, Rhode Island

On October 7, in the afternoon, a small British naval fleet appeared off the coast of Bristol. The fleet had been operating in the area of Newport Harbor. The fleet sent a representative ashore to talk to the townspeople.

He stated that if the town's delegation did not immediately come out to Capt. Wallace's command ship within an hour to listen to the British demands on the town, the fleet would open fire on the town. Wallace request was for 200 sheep and 30 cattle.

Townsman William Bradford told Wallace's emissary that it would be more fitting for Wallace to come ashore and make known his demands.

Around 8:00 P.M., in a pouring rain, the British opened fire on the town. The naval bombardment lasted for 1 1/2 hours. Col. Potter had gone to Wallace's ship and asked that the town be given more time to select a delegation to meet him.

With this request, Wallace ordered that the bombardment cease. The townspeople reached a settlement with the British. Wallace had to finally settle for just 40 sheep.
Conclusion: British Victory

October 17, 1775 at Falmouth, Massachusetts

British warships HMS Canceaux and HMS Halifax, under Capt. Henry Mowat, drop anchor off Falmouth (Portland, Maine), Massachusetts. He sends an ultimatum ashore, demanding the town's surrender. When refused, Mowat bombards the waterfront for 9 hours. Landing parties go ashore to complete the destruction. Ultimately, fire engulfs 400 buildings and 15 vessels. The extent of destruction outrages New Englanders and fans the flames of resentment against Great Britian.
Conclusion: British Victory

October 18, 1775 at Chambly, Quebec

In late September, Maj. John Brown had organized a group of English Canadian volunteers at the town of La Prairie. Brown, along with Col. Ethan Allen, were sent by Brig. Gen. Richard Montgomery to organize 2 separate forces to attack Montreal from two different directions. Allen's force would later be captured.

On October 17, during the night, several 9-lb. artillery pieces were shipped to Chambly after slipping through the siege at St. Johns.

Chambly was located about 10 miles south of St. Johns. With 50 Continentals under Brown and Col. Timothy Bedel, they joined up with 300 Canadians, led by Col. James Livingston. Once together, they were to attack the fort at Chambly.

On October 18, the Americans surrounded Chambly and began the attack with a cannonade barrage on the British stone fort. This alone proved adequately persuasive against the British. Maj. Stopford, commander of the British force inside the fort, surrendered his garrison of 10 officers and 78 enlisted men of the Royal Fusilers. The fort also housed 81 women and children.

The American force confiscated military stuff including 125 stand of British arms, 6 tons of gunpowder, and 6,500 musket cartridges. They also confiscated foodstuffs including 134 barrels of pork, 80 barrels of flour, and s bunch of rice, butter, and peas. The sentimental trophy was the British regimental colors, which was sent to Congress.
Conclusion: American Victory

October 18, 1775 at Rebellion Road, South Carolina

At Charlestown Harbor, the British sloop, HMS Tamar, fired on a boat, with the SC 2nd Regiment Detachment led by Lt. Col. Isaac Motte aboard, leaving Fort Johnson. There were no injuries.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

October 24-25, 1775 at Hampton, Virginia

The conflict between Gov. Lord Dunmore and the Americans reached the shooting stage when Dunmore became frustrated with them and sent a British naval fleet to destroy Norfolk.

On October 24, 6 British tenders, commanded by Capt. Squire, sailed into Hampton Creek. They began to bombard the town. Next, he sent several landing parties to set fire to the town, too. When the parties entered Hampton, riflemen drove them off.

On October 25, at dawn, 100 Culpeper militiamen, commanded Col. William Woodford, moved into the town to defend it against a second British attack. At sunrise, the British ships moved in, sprung their cables, and opened fire on the town. These militia picked off the sailors on deck and in the rigging's on Squire's ships offshore.

This forced the British to begin a disorderly withdrawal. While leaving the area, 2 sloops ran aground and were captured. The British suffered several casualties but the militia did not have a single one.
Conclusion: American Victory.

October 31, 1775 at Congaree River, South Carolina

In hopes to avert an outbreak of Indian raids and to appease the Cherokees, South Carolina President Henry Laurens sent 1,000 pounds of gunpowder upcountry for them to use for hunting, and for good will. This powder and associated lead for making shot was escorted by a detachment of the SC 3rd Regiment of Rangers, under the command of Lt. Thomas Charlton.

Loyalists learned of this and they sent Patrick Cunningham to intercept the shipment. He stopped the first wagon which was driven by Moses Cotter at the Congarees. Cunningham asked Cotter what he had in the wagon, to which he replied "just some rum." Sixty Loyalists then rose up from the nearby fields and swarmed the wagon. They removed kegs of powder and dumped it into bags they had earlier prepared, then they cut the lead bars into smaller pieces with their tomahawks and passed them around.

Lt. Charlton and his Rangers soon appeared and Cunningham's men hid in the trees until he arrived and then they surrounded him. He was greatly outnumbered and facing rifles at point-blank range, so he quickly surrendered. The Loyalists then marched off with their loot and their Ranger prisoners. Moses Cotter drove his wagon to Ninety-Six and reported the incident to Major James Mayson, the commander of the fort.

Four days later, Major Andrew Williamson of the Ninety-Six District Regiment of Militia learned of this incident and called out his men. They marched to Ninety-Six with the stated objective of retrieving the gunpowder, but also used this as an excuse to round up local Loyalists.
Conclusion: British Victory

NOVEMBER OF 1775

November 3, 1775 at Mine Creek, South Carolina

Loyalist Patrick Cunningham began recruiting supporters to help him free his brother, Robert Cunningham, from imprisonment in Charlestown. Robert Cunningham had been jailed on charges of sedition leveled by Capt. John Caldwell of the SC 3rd Regiment (Rangers) at the village of Ninety-Six on October 23.

On November 3, Patrick Cunningham and his group of about sixty Loyalists captured a wagon train at Mine Creek en route to delivering gunpowder to the Cherokees from the First SC Provincial Congress. The Loyalists made prisoners of the guard of 20 Rangers and the officers and took them to the fort at Ninety-Six.
Conclusion: British Victory

November 9, 1775 at Boston, Massachusetts

On November 19, about 500 British regulars crossed from Charleston Point to Lechmere's Point intending to confiscate some sheep and cattle from the Phipps Farm. They seized a drunken American sentry, but other sentries saw this and fired a few shots at the British.

This commotion startled the surrounding American force and spread an alarm. Col. William Thompson was ordered to the attack. After a brief firefight, the British force withdrew with a prize of 10 cows.
Conclusion: British Victory

November 9, 1775 at Rebellion Road, South Carolina

Charlestown Harbor, the British sloop, HMS Tamar, captured a Georgian sloop in a heavy fog. On board was a load of apples and cider bound for Georgia.

Gunner George Walker, who had capitulated Fort Johnson and had recently been paroled, was given command of the newly-captured sloop. Walker took on board the sloop two trunks of pistols and cutlasses, two chests of arms, and one other sailor from the HMS Tamar. He had instructions from Royal Governor Lord William Campbell to go to St. Augustine and bring back 20 men to retake Fort Johnson.

As soon as the HMS Tamar was out of sight, Georgia Capt. John Wanton and his men seized Gunner George Walker and his mate and placed them in the hold. Capt. Wanton sailed to Savannah and turned over the two men to the Committee and collected £200 for the boxes of arms.

In an entirely different account, this event occurred on the same day between two South Carolina pilot boats, the Hawke and the Hibernia, who together chased a British boat, the Shark, under the command of a Lt. Peyton, back to Charlestown harbor - the first recorded offensive action to be taken by the SC Navy.
By November, the SC Navy consisted of the schooner Defense ,under the command of Capt. Simon Tufts, and two pilot boats, the Hawke under Capt. Joseph Vessey, and the Hibernia under Capt. Thomas Smith. Another ship, the Comet, was still being outfitted. Soldiers from the SC 1st Regiment and the SC 2nd Regiment augmented these ships as sailors.

The first cruise of the South Carolina Navy was on November 7 when the two pilot boats Hawke and Hibernia set sail to warn any approaching merchant ships that they needed to go to the ports of Beaufort or Georgetown. On November 9, the two pilot boats spotted the British boat Shark under the command of Lt. Peyton and chased it back into the port of Charlestown.
Conclusion: Inconclusive

November 9, 1775 at Lechmere Point, Massachussetts

On November 9, a British foraging party of 9 infantry companies and 100 grenadiers landed at Lechmere's Point at high tide. They were to seize cattle needed for the British garrison.

The American commanders in the area thought that this might be more than just a typical foraging party. Col. William Thompson and his Pennsylvania riflemen were ordered to make a counterattack. To support his operation, Col. Benjamin Woodbridge and part of his and part of Col. John Patterson's regiment were sent for support.

The water all around the point was icy. despite 2 feet of the icy water, the American force advanced against the British, who soon withdrew with 10 head of cattle. The Americans suffered 2 wounded.
Conclusion: American Victory

November 11-12, 1775 at Hog Island Channel, South Carolina

Rumors of a British naval attack caused the local commanders to make changes in the harbor's defense. A plan was made to sink several old ships in the Marsh Channel and Hog Island Creek. This would close the Hog Island channel to any British incursion into the area.

On November 11, the USS Defense, commanded by Capt. Simon Tufts, proceeded with four ship hulks in order to sink them in the channel. At 4:30 PM, the HMS Tamar, commanded by Capt. Edward Thornborough, spotted the Defense and fired six shots at it. The Defense dropped anchor and fired back. After the Tamar ceased its firing, Capt. Tufts was able to sink three of the hulks.

On November 12, at 4:00 a.m., the HMS Tamar and HMS Cherokee drifted close to the USS Defense. Both British ships commenced to fire broadside shots at the Defense for three hours. The Defense managed to sink the last hulk and then withdrew from the area. The Tamar sent an armed boat to the hulk and set it on fire. It then towed the hulk away from the channel.

The HMS Tamar shot over 100 rounds at the Defense but only struck her three times. Fort Johnson fired three shots at the two British vessels, striking the sails of the British ships.

The Charles Town District Regiment of Militia was called out during the naval battle and remained on station for several hours in anticipation of a land assault that never came.

On November 24, two more hulks were sunk in Hog Island Channel so that all ships would have to pass by the guns of Fort Johnson. The SC Provincial Congress authorized the arming and manning of the ship Prosper to take or sink the menacing British warships that lurked around the coast. The Prosper had been a merchant ship that went between Bristol, England and the colonies before the war. It was armed as a frigate with eight 12-pounders, seven 6-pounders, and four 4-pounders. Capt. Simon Tufts was given command as soon as she was outfitted.
Conclusion: Draw

November 13, 1775 at Montreal, Quebec

On November 5, Brig. Gen. Richard Montgomery and his American force left St. John's and headed to Montreal. When St. John's fell to the Americans, Montreal was left open to capture.

On November 11, the first of Montgomery's force landed above Montreal. Maj. Gen. Guy Carlton only had 150 British regulars and some militia to oppose the Americans, not nearly enough to do any damage to Montgomery.

The British boarded his ships with troops and the most valuable stores and sailed away. With adverse winds, the American shore batteries firing on them, and some bluffing by John Brown led the British to have to surrender the brigateen HMS Gaspee, 2 other armed ships, 8 smaller boats, the stores, and all of the British personnel except for Carleton and a couple of his officers. Carleton escaped from the Gaspee by disguising himself in civilian clothes and made his way to Quebec.

On November 13, Montgomery accepted the surrender of Montreal where Maj. Ethan Allen's premature attack had failed. In the end, the Canadian expedition was a failure.

By June 1776, remnants of the American invasion force, incapable of holding their positions against a reinforced British Army, were back at Fort Ticonderoga.
Conclusion: American Victory

November 15, 1775 at Plains of Abraham, Quebec

On November 15, Brig. Gen. Benedict Arnold had finished his famous march to Quebec. He moved his 700-man force into position and tried to bluff the British garrison to surrender. The British did not fall for this and refused Arnold. This left him with no choice but to withdraw his force.

November 16-21, 1775 at Fort Johnson, South Carolina

On November 16-21, the British sloops HMS Cruizer and HMS Scorpion were ordered to retrieve any guns and ammunition from Fort Johnson that may have been left behind when the Patriots captured it in July.

Capt. Francis Parry, commander of the Cruizer and the expedition, sent his landing party ashore. As they were loading a cannon onto a transport, a group of North Carolina militiamen showed up to stop the British. The Cruizer fired on the militia and kept them out of firing range of the British landing party.

A British detachment of 40 British sailors and marines remained in the fort while the ships continued to fire at the militia. At the same time, the fort's garrison fired on the militia. This operation continued for about a week until all of the guns from the fort had been removed from the beach. Afterwards, the British ships sailed back to the Cape Fear harbor.
Conclusion: British Victory

November 16, 1775 at Fort Johnston, North Carolina

The British sloops-of-war HMS Cruizer and HMS Scorpion were ordered to retrieve the heavy guns and ammunition that had been removed from Fort Johnston earlier in July and placed along the nearby shore at that time.

As British sailors put the cannons onto a transport, the HMS Cruizer fired upon the Patriot militiamen in the nearby woods around the abandoned fort. Forty British sailors and marines remained in the burned-down fort with swivel guns while the sloops anchored just offshore. While HMS Cruizer was firing grapeshot, those within the old fort fired their muskets and swivel guns to keep the Patriots out of range of the workmen along the shore.

This retrieval operation took five days until all the guns from the fort had been removed from the shoreline. Afterwards, HMS Cruizer and HMS Scorpion sailed back to their previous positions at the Cape Fear Harbor.
Conclusion: British Victory

November 19, 1775 at Sorel, Quebec

On November 19, the Patriot forces blocking the St. Lawrence River near Sorel captured 3 armed British ships and 8 smaller crafts with their crews and cargoes, and the British garrison from Montreal.
Conclusion: American Victory

November 22, 1775 at Reedy River, South Carolina

On November 22, a Patriot force of more than 4,000 men overpowered a smaller Loyalist force at Reedy River.

They captured the principal Loyalist leaders. The capture collapsed the armed Loyalist opposition in South Carolina.
Conclusion: American Victory

November 27, 1775 at Cape Ann, Massachusetts

Capt. John Manley, commanding the armed schooner Lee, captures the British ordnance brig HMS Nancy off Cape Ann. The Nancy is heavily laden with military staores, including 2,000 muskets, 100,000 flints, 31 tons of musket balls, and a 2,700-pound mortardubbed "Congress", all of which are immediately forwarded to the Continental army in Boston.
Conclusion: American Victory

November 29, 1775 at Boston, Massachusetts

George Washington and the Continental Army were besieging British held Boston at the time. The British troops were trapped in the city and the only way to receive food and supplies was by sea. Washington wanted to harass and capture as many ships bringing supplies to the troops in Boston as possible, so he formed a small squadron of ships, outfitted at his own expense, for the task.

Captain John Manley was given command of a schooner named the USS Lee, after General Charles Lee. The schooner was chartered from Thomas Stevens of Marblehead, Massachusetts and was previously called the Two Brothers. Captain Manley set out from Marblehead on October 28.

He captured a small British sloop called the Polly, carrying turnips to the soldiers in Boston on November 27th, but on the 29th, he ran into the brigantine Nancy, a massive 250 ton British ship bringing supplies to Boston. Unknown to Captain Manley and the crew of the USS Lee, the ship was carrying tons of ammunition and weapons.

After capturing the Polly, Manley searched the waters off of Boston. When the Nancy saw the Lee, it was mistaken for a British pilot boat which would lead them into Boston. The Nancy then gave a series of signal flags, alerting the Lee that her intentions had not yet been discovered.

Captain Manley sent a boat of men to the Nancy with their arms concealed. As soon as they boarded the ship, they pulled their weapons on the crew and the ship was surrendered without a fight.

The Nancy turned out to be one of the most valuable captures of the American Revolution. It contained 2,000 muskets, 8,000 fuses, 31 tons of musket balls, 3,000 solid shot for 12-pounders (cannon balls), one 13 inch cannon, 100,000 flints and other types of ammunition and supplies.

The Nancy was sailed into Beverly, Massachusetts, where the supplies were loaded onto wagons and hauled to Cambridge, George Washington's headquarters outside Boston.
Conclusion: American Victory

December of 1775

December 5, 1775 at Charleston, South Carolina

On December 5, the HMS Scorpion captured two ships, the Hetty and the Thomas & Stafford at the mouth of Charlestown harbor. The Hetty would be made into a British warship and renamed HMS General Clinton, bringing the British "fleet" in Charlestown Harbor to six vessels.
Conclusion: British Victory

December 13, 1775 at Norfolk, Virginia

On December 13, after the American victory at the Battle of Great Bridge, the Patriot force occupies the town of Norfolk.
Conclusion: American Victory

December 19, 1775 at Sullivan's Island, South Carolina

Patriot Militia, on the night of December 19, attacked a party of British troops encamped on Sullivan’s Island killing and capturing a few unlucky persons. With Sullivan’s Island now cleared of British troops, the Patriots were now able to start construction of a defensive fortification on the island.

At 7:00 AM., Capt. John Allston and his 54 Indians surprised the British and burned the Pest House. They destroyed some water casks and burned Gunner George Walker's house. Four runaway slaves who refused to be taken were killed.

The Indians captured four white men, four women, and three children. Three of the men and a boy were crew from the HMS Cherokee. Several British sailors hid throughout the night and when they were taken off the island in the morning they were fired upon by the Indians.
Conclusion: American Victory

December 22, 1775 at Cane Break, South Carolina

Following the truce that resulted from the Battle of Ninety-Six, a group South Carolina militia and newly raised Continentals, commanded by Col. Richard Richardson and Col. William Thompson, moved into the region between the Broad River and Saluda River.

Their purpose was to break up the Loyalists that were gathering there. Richardson and Thompson was soon joined by 700 North Carolina militia commanded by Col. Thomas Polk and Col. Griffith Rutherford, and 220 Continental regulars commanded by Col. Alexander Martin.

All these American forces added up to a total amount of 4,000 troops.

On December 22, the Americans attacked and the Loyalists resistance quickly collapsed. Richardson's men managed to capture some Loyalist leaders, including Thomas Fletchall. There was a single Tory unit that did not disband with the initial assault, but they were soon routed by part of Richardson's command.
Conclusion: American Victory

December 23, 1775 at ??, South Carolina

November and December 1775 — The “Snow Campaign” - The Spartan Regiment and other Patriots, under Col. Richard Richardson, set out to attack a Loyalist unit that had camped in Indian territory (present-day Greenville County) for safety. Thomas Sumter participated in this march as Col. Richardson's Aide-de-Camp with the rank of a Militia Captain. The Patriots marched through several feet of snow in early December to accomplish this.

Col. Richardson arrived with a relief force after the Siege of Ninety-Six in mid-November. The Loyalists, abiding by the terms of the "treaty," had disbanded most of their forces. Col. Richardson refused to abide by the "treaty" and rounded up their leaders and sent them to Charlestown under arrest. As soon as the army was collected at Fort Granby the line of march was begun by way of Weaver's Ferry on the Saluda River.

On December 22, Col. Richardson detached 1,300 troops to attack the camp of Capt. Patrick Cunningham that had stopped to rest on Cherokee lands. Capt. Cunningham warned his men to fend for themselves and they all ran into the woods. He was able to escape on horseback and hide at a camp at the Great Cane Break on Reedy River. Col. Thomas Fletchall was found hiding in a hollow sycamore tree on Fair Forest Creek, and was sent down to Charlestown with a company of Patriots.

After Capt. Patrick Cunningham had been defeated at Great Cane Brake, Col. Richardson considered the upcountry to be pacified and turned his army homeward. He couldn't stay because winter was coming and his army had no tents, their shoes were worn out, and they were badly clothed. Along the way home, it snowed for 30 hours, dumping nearly two feet on the weary Patriots.
Conclusion: American Victory