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American Revolutionary War
Continental Regiments

Artillery Regiment in the Continental Army

As militia from throughout New England streamed in to bottle up the British in Boston, the colonies of Rhode Island and Connecticut bound their forces to the overall command of Massachusetts and General Artemas Ward.

The council in Massachusetts recognized the need for a regiment of artillery and commissioned Richard Gridley as Colonel and commander. This Massachusetts regiment consisted of a colonel, a lieutenant colonel and two Majors with a staff and a company of artificers to serve ten companies.

Artificers were specialized artisans who were responsible for repairing damaged ordnance equipment. Overall, the artillery forces arrayed around Boston consisted of Gridley‘s Regiment, the companies under Rhode Island‘s John Crane and Connecticut‘s company under John Bigelow. The various elements of the Massachusetts Artillery Regiment under Richard Gridley occupied the works surrounding the British in Boston with its headquarters located at Cambridge, Massachusetts.

This artillery organization fought the battle of Bunker Hill in which it performed rather poorly. During the battle, Gridley also served as chief engineer. He planned the hasty fortification on Breed‘s Hill and failed to direct the cutting of embrasures for the cannon.

As a result, his company commander positioned the field pieces uncovered by fortifications. These guns settled for ineffectual fire on British warships and withdrew early upon the British advance. They lost all their field pieces except one.

Washington‘s General Orders dated 21 October 1775 in Cambridge sought to enlist the entirety of Colonel Gridley‘s Massachusetts Artillery Regiment into the Continental artillery for one year. It also included the Rhode Island artillery company under Major John Crane. Colonel Gridley‘s organization had some inherent difficulty, particularly with discipline, and with it Washington adopted some significant problems.

He soon realized the magnitude of these challenges and sought remedy for them. It became apparent that the regiment would need a significant change in leadership and Washington found a suitable replacement in Henry Knox.

The Continental Congress appointed Henry Knox to command the regiment on 17 November 1775, although other duties would preclude his taking effective command until 1 January 1776.16 In December of 1775, the Continental Congress passed a resolution concerning the artillery regiment that expanded the total number of companies from ten to twelve and provided for two lieutenant colonels and two majors.

Augmented by separate artillery companies from New York and Pennsylvania, this arrangement was the organization that threatened the British enough to evacuate Boston and would fight the long retreat from New York through New Jersey. Operations in the field drove home to the Congress a need for a more general reorganization of the Continental Army.

Continental Artillery Regiment

(aka Gridley's and Knox's Artillery Regiment)

Authorized on May 10, 1775 in the Massachusetts State Troops as the Regiment of the Train of Artillery.

The Regiment was organized on May 12, 1775 in Cambridge, Massachusetts after the Battles of Lexington and Concord of April 19.

The Regiment was organized in late May and early June 1775 at Cambridge and Roxbury to consist of 10 companies with recruits from Suffolk, Middlesex, Worcester, Essex and Hampshire Counties. Adopted on June 14, 1775 into the Continental Army, assigned to the Main Continental Army and re-designated as the Continental Artillery Regiment.

The Regiment originated with its adoption to the main Continental Army on on June 14, 1775. Early on, it was authorized as the Regiment of the Train of Artillery in the Massachusetts State Troops under the command of Col. Richard Gridley. The regiment consisted of 11 companies with recruits from Suffolk, Middlesex, Worcester, Essex and Hampshire Counties.

On 1 January 1, 1776, the Regiment was consolidated with the Rhode Island Train of Artillery which was made up of recruits from Providence County and designated as the Continental Artillery Regiment, an element of the Main Army, consisting twelve companies. As of November 22, 1775, the commander of the Regiment was Henry Knox, who at the time held the rank of Colonel.

It was disbanded on January 1, 1777 at Trenton, New Jersey and Peekskill and Fort Ticonderoga, New York when enlistment's expired. Many of those persuaded to re-enlist, went on to serve in the 2nd (Lamb's) and 3rd (Crane's) Continental Artillery, both of which had service through the end of the war.

Significant Campaigns and Battles

The regiment would see action during the Siege of Boston (1775–1776), Invasion of Quebec (1775–1776) and the New York and New Jersey Campaign 1776-77. It took part in the following major battles:

1st Continental Artillery Regiment

(aka Harrison's Continental Artillery Regiment)

Authorized on November 26, 1776 in the Continental Army as Harrison's Continental Artillery Regiment and assigned to the Southern Department. The regiment was organized in spring and summer 1777 at Williamsburg, Virginia to consist of 10 companies, including the Virginia State Artillery Company and the Virginia Continental Artillery Company .

Relieved on March 13, 1778 from the Southern Department and assigned to the Main Continental Army.

Re-designated on August 10, 1779 as the 1st Continental Artillery Regiment.

Relieved on April 17, 1780 from the Main Continental Army and assigned to the Southern Department.

Reorganized on May 9, 1780 to consist of 12 companies, including the Maryland Contiental Artillery Companies.

Reorganized on January 1, 1781 to consist of 10 companies.

Furloughed in summer of 1783 at Winchester, Virginia and Baltimore, Maryland. Disbanded on November 15, 1783.

Significant Campaigns and Battles

The regiment would see action during the Philadelphia Campaign 1777-78Southern Theater 1775-82 and Yorktown Campaign 1781. It took part in the following major battles:

2nd Continental Artillery Regiment

(aka Lamb's Continental Artillery Regiment)

Authorized on January 1, 1777 in the Continental Army as Lamb's Continental Artillery Regiment.

Organized in spring 1777 with elements in the Main Continental Army and Highland's Department to consist of 12 companies as follows:

  • 3 existing companies from New York, reorganized at Morristown, New Jersey and Peekskill, New York
  • 4 new companies from Fairfield and New Haven counties, Connecticut, organized at New Haven, Connecticut and Peekskill, New York
  • 3 new companies from Ulster, Orange, Dutchess, Westchester, New York and Albany Counties and New York City, New York, organized at Peekskll, New York
  • 2 new companies from Philadelphia City and County, Pennsylvania, organized at Morristown, New Jersey.

It was assigned to the on June 12, 1777 (less 2 companies with the Main Army) to the Highland's Department.

On August 10, 1779 the unit was renamed the 2nd Continental Artillery Regiment. Two companies, Captain Andrew Porters Company merged with Capt. Issac Coren's Company and reorganized and re-designated Capt. Andrew Porter's Company, 4th Continental Artillery Regiment. on 1 January 1781 to form a 10-company regiment.

Relieved on August 28, 1781 from the Highland's Department and assigned to the Main Army   in time to fight at the Siege of Yorktown

The regiment returned to the Hudson Highlands on August 24, 1782 from the Main Army and assigned to the Highland's Department. It re-organized on June 11, 1783 to consist of 2 companies.

Disbanded on January 1, 1784 (less Capt. John Doughty'd Company remaining in the U.S. Army) at West Point, New York.

Significant Campaigns and Battles

The regiment would see action during the
New York and New Jersey Campaign (1776-77), Northern Theater (1778–1782), Philadelphia Campaign 1777-78 and the Yorktown Campaign (1781). It took part in the following major battles:

3d Continental Artillery Regiment

(aka Crane's Continental Artillery Regiment)

Authorized on January 1, 1777 in the Continental Army as Crane's Continental Artillery Regiment.

The regiment was organized (less Steven's Provisional Artillery Battalion) in spring 1777 at Boston, Massachusetts and Peekskill, New York, with elements in the Main Army, Highland's Department and the Northern Department, to consist of 12 companies from Massachusetts and Rhode Island (including veterans of the Continental Artillery Regiment)

Re-designated on August 10, 1779 as the 3rd Continental Artillery Regiment. The regiment was Re-organized on January 1, 1781 to consist of 10 companies  after the transfer of several companies to another artillery regiment..

The Regiment was reassigned to the  Highland's Department. on August 24, 1782 from the Main Army.

The regiment was rebuilt on a four company establishment on June 12, 1783 to consist of 4 companies. The 3rd Artillery Regiment was disbanded on January 1, 1784 at West Point, New York.

Significant Campaigns and Battles

The regiment would see action during the Northern Theater (1778–1782), Saratoga Campaign (1777) and the Philadelphia Campaign 1777-78. It took part in the following major battles:

4th Continental Artillery Regiment

(aka Proctor's Continental Artillery Regiment)

Authorized on October 16, 1775 in the Pennsylvania State Troops as the Pennsylvania State Artillery Company. The regiment was organized between October 17- November 27, 1775 at Philadelphia.

Expanded on August 14, 1776 as the Pennsylvania State Artillery Battalion, to consist of 2 companies. It was assigned to the on September 23, 1776 to the Main Continental Army.

Expanded on February 6, 1776 as the Pennsylvania State Artillery Regiment, to consist of 8 companies from eastern Pennsylvania, and relieved from the Main Continental Army.

Adopted on June 10, 1777 into the Continental Army as Proctor's Continental Artillery Regiment and assigned to the Middle Department. Relieved on July 14, 1777 from the Middle Department and assigned to the Main Continental Army.

Re-designated on August 10, 1779 as the 4th Continental Artillery Regiment.

Re-organized on January 1, 1781 to consist of 10 companies, including Capt. Issac Coren's Company, Artillery Artifcer Regiment, Capts. Andrew Porter's and Jonas Simond's Companies, 2nd Continental Artillery Regiment, and Captain Jerimiah Freeman's Continental Artillery Company.

Relieved on February 20, 1781 from the Main Continental Army and assigned to the Southern Department.

Re-organized 1 January 1, 1783 to consist of 4 companies. Relived on April 24, 1783 from the Southern Department and assigned to the Middle Department.

Furloughed on June 11, 1783 at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Disbanded on November 15, 1783.

Significant Campaigns and Battles

The regiment would see action during the
New York and New Jersey Campaign (1776-77), Northern Theater (1778–1782), Philadelphia Campaign 1777-78 and the Yorktown Campaign (1781). It took part in the following major battles:

Georgia Continental Artillery Companies

Authorized on July 5, 1776 in the Continental Army as the 1st and 2d Georgia Continental Artillery Companies and assigned to the Southern Department. The regiment was organized in fall 1776 at Savannah and Sunbury, respectively.

Georgia Provincial Artillery Company (organized on May 15, 1776 in the Georgia State Troops at Savannah) adopted on February 6, 1777 into the Continental Army; concurrently re-designated as the 3rd Georgia Continental Artillery Company and assigned to the Southern Department.

1st and 3rd Georgia Continental Artillery Companies consolidated on February 19, 1778 and re-designated as the 1st Georgia Continental Artillery Company.

1st Georgia Continental Artillery Company captured on December 29, 1778 at Savannah, Georgia by the British Army. 2nd Georgia Continental Artillery Company captured on January 10, 1779 at Sunbury, Georgia by the British Army

1st and 2nd Georgia Continental Artillery Companies disbanded on November 29, 1779.

Significant Campaigns and Battles

Maryland State Artillery Companies

Authorized on January 14, 1776 in the Maryland State Troops as the 1st and 2nd Maryland State Artillery Companies. The regiment was organized in the spring of 1776 at Baltimore and Annapolis, respectively.

Re-organized on October 23, 1776 to consist of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Maryland State Artillery Companies (3rd Maryland State Artillery Company organized in winter 1776 at Annapolis.)

Adopted on November 27 in the Continental Army as the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Maryland Continental Artillery Companies and assigned to the Main Army.

1st Maryland Continental Artillery Company merged and re-designated on May 9, 1780 as the 11th Company of the 1st Continental Artillery Regiment. 2nd & 3rd Maryland Continental Artillery Companies merged and re-designated on May 9, 1780 as the 12th Company of the 1st Continental Artillery Regiment.

North Carolina Continental Artillery Company

Authorized on May 9, 1776 in the North Carolina State Troops as the North Carolina Artillery Company. The regiment was organized during the summer of 1776 at Wilmington with recruits from eastern North Carolina.

Adopted on July 19, 1777 into the Continental Army as the North Carolina Continental Artillery Company and assigned to the Main Army. Relieved on November 11, 1779 from the Main Army and assigned to the Southern Department.

Captured on May 12, 1780 at Charleston, South Carolina, by the British Army. Disbanded on January 1, 1781.

Rhode Island Train of Artillery

Authorized on May 6, 1775 in the Rhode Island State Troops as the Rhode Island Train of Artillery. The regiment was organized between May 8- June 3, 1775 at Providence with recruits from Providence County.

Adopted on June 14, 1775 into the Continental Army and assigned to the Main Army. Consolidated on January 1, 1776 with the Continental Regiment; expanded and re-designated as Capt. Ebenezer Stevens' and Capt. Steven Badlam's Companies, Continental Artillery Regiment.

New York Provincial Company of Artillery

Authorized on January 6, 1776 in the New York State Troops as the New York Provincial Company of Artillery. The regiment was organized between February 3- March 30, 1776 at New York City.

It was assigned to the on June 17, 1776 to the Main Army. Adopted on March 17, 1777 into the Continental Army as Capt. John Doughty's Company, Lamb's Continental Artillery Regiment.

Virginia Continental Artillery Company

Authorized on March 19, 1776 in the Continental Army as the Virginia Continental Artillery Company and assigned to the Southern Department. The regiment was organized in summer of 1776 at Williamsburg. Consolidated and re-designated on November 27, 1776 as a company in Harrison's Continental Artillery Regiment.

Virginia State Artillery Company

Authorized on January 11, 1776 in the Virginia State Troops as the Virginia State Artillery Company. The regiment was organized in the spring of 1776 at Williamsburg. Consolidated and re-designated on November 26, 1776 as a company in Harrison's Continental Artillery Regiment.

Captain Sebastian Bauman's Continental Artillery Company

Authorized on October 28, 1775 in the Continental Army as a company of artillery to be raised in New York for service in the Hudson Highland's and assigned to the New York Department.

The regiment was organized between December 6, 1775 - May 27, 1776 at New York City as Capt. Sebastian Bauman's Continental Artillery Company.

Relieved on April 13, 1776 from the New York Department and assigned to the Main Continental Army.

Re-designated on January 1, 1777 as Capt. Sebastian Bauman's Company, Lamb's Continental Artillery Regiment

Captain Issac Coren's Laboratory Company

Authorized on January 16, 1777 in the Continental Army as Capt. Issac Coren's Laboratory Company, Lt. Col. Benjamin Flower's Corps of Artillery Artificers, an element of the Commissary General of Military Stores' Department.

The regiment was organized in spring 1777 at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, with recruits from central and eastern Pennsylvania. Re-designated on February 11, 1778 as Capt. Issac Coren's Company, Artillery Artificer Regiment.

Consolidated on January 1, 1781 with Capt. Andrew Porter's Company, 2nd Continental Artillery Regiment and re-designated as Capt. Andrew Porter's Company, 4th Continental Artillery Regiment

Captain John Lamb's Company of Artillery

Authorized on June 30, 1775 in the Continental Army as Capt. John Lamb's Company of Artillery in the New York Department. The regiment was organized between July 17 to August 29, 1775 in New York City.

Captured in part on December 31, 1775 at Quebec, Canada, by the British Army; remainder of the company concurrently re-organized and re-designated as Capt. Isaiah Wool's Artillery Detachment, an element of the New York Department.

Relieved on January 20, 1776 from the New York Department and assigned to the Canadian Department. Relieved on July 2, 1776 from the Canadian Department and assigned to the Northern Department.

Re-organized and re-designated 1 January 1777 as Capt. Andrew Moodie's Company, Lamb's Continental Artillery Regiment

Stevens' Provisional Artillery Battalion

Authorized on November 9, 1776 in the Continental Army as Stevens' Provisional Artillery Battalion and assigned to the Northern Department. The regiment was organized in early 1777 at Boston, Massachusetts and Albany and Fort Ticonderoga, New York, to consist of Capt. Steven Buckland's, Nathaniel Donnell's and John Winslow's Companies of Crane's Continental Artillery Regiment (recruited from Massachusetts and Connecticut) and Capt. Noah Nichols' Artifcer Company.

Relieved on May 18, 1778 from the Northern Department and assigned to the Highland's Department. Relieved on July 19, 1778 from the Highland's Department and assigned to the Main Army.

Captain Noah Nichols' Artifcer Company withdrawn on August 28, 1778 and consolidated with Capt. Jesse Roe's Company, Artillery Artifcer Regiment. Stevens' Provisional Artillery Battalion broken up on December 22, 1778 at Pluckemin, New Jersey and companies reverted to Crane's Continental Artillery Regiment.

Captain Benard Roman's Continental Artillery Company

Authorized 20 January 20, 1776 in the Continental Army as a company of artillery from Pennsylvania and assigned to the Canadian Department. The regiment was organized between February 8- March 25, 1776 at Philadelphia as Capt. Benard Roman's Continental Artillery Company.

Relieved on July 2, 1776 from the Canadian Department and assigned to the Northern Department.

Re-organized and re-designated on January 1, 1777 as Capt. Gibbs Jones' Continental Artillery Company; concurrently relieved from the Northern Department and assigned to the Main Continental Army.

Relieved on November 22, 1778 from the Main Continental Army and assigned to the Highland's Department.

Re-designated on April 16, 1780 as Capt. Jerimiah Freeman's Continental Artillery Company.

Consolidated on January 1, 1781 with Capt. Jonas Simond's Company, 2d Continental Artillery Regiment and designated Capt. Jonas Simond's Company, 4th Continental Artillery Regiment